Table 1

Description of measures

ItemNNo. of Items% of doctors with present symptom/M (SD)Recoding (if applicable)MeasureMeasure/original scoring
Sleep disturbances
 Difficulty falling asleep3901220, 1—symptom absent; 2,3,4—symptom presentInsomnia Severity Index (ISI)0 (scores showing no insomnia) to
4 (showing severe insomnia)
 Difficulty staying asleep390135
 Sleep problems interfere with daily functioning389135
 Worried or distressed about a current sleep problem390120
 Dissatisfied with sleep pattern3901440, 1, 2—symptom absent (2 is included as it means ‘unsure’); 3, 4—symptom present
 Think about work when they go to bed4171610, 1—symptom absent; 2, 3—symptom presentEffort-Reward scale1 (strongly disagree) to
4 (strongly agree)
 Trouble sleeping if they postpone tasks416149
 Insomnia390711≤14—symptom absent (no, subthreshold insomnia); ≥15—symptom present (moderate, severe insomnia) 31 ISI7 items; 0 (scores showing
no insomnia) to 4 (showing
severe insomnia)
Substance use
 Substance use in order to feel better3921341—symptom absent; 2, 3, 4—symptom presentThe Brief COPE1 (I usually do not do this) to
4 (I usually do this a lot)
 Substance use in order to get through something393122
 Frequency of drinking alcohol3861531, 2, 3—not drinking or drinking less than two to three times a week; 4, 5—drinking two to three times a week or more oftenAlcohol Use Disorder Identification Test1 (never/1–2) to 5 (daily/>10)
 Quantity of drinks on typical day of drinking3621271—drinking 1, 2 drinks; 2, 3, 4, 5—drinking three or more drinks
 Drink six or more drinks on one occasion3731441—never; 2, 3, 4, 5—binge-drinking
 Alcohol dependence37755Substance abuse was identified if any of the items were answered ‘yes’ 25 The Patient Health Questionnaire0 (no) and 1 (yes)
 Drug use3802244Drug use was identified if any of the items were answered ‘yes’ Commonly Abused Drugs22 items; 0 (no) and 1 (yes)
Physical symptoms
 Fatigue3901691, 2—symptom absent; 3, 4, 5—symptom presentThe Physical Symptom Inventory1 (not at all) to 5 (every day)
 Upset stomach or nausea390119
 Backache390133
 Headaches390127
 Acid indigestion or heartburn390123
 Eye strain390129
 Diarrhoea390112
 Ringing in the ears390113
 Stomach cramps38918
 Constipation39014
 Loss of appetite39017
 Dizziness39018
Eating problems
 Eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry316135N/AThe Binge Eating Scale0 (no) and 1 (yes)
 Eat until feeling uncomfortably full316131
 Eat alone because they feel embarrassed315124
 Feel disgusted with themselves, depressed or very guilty after overeating316128
 Feel upset about their uncontrollable eating or weight gain316129
 Binge-eating31698Please see30 details for codingThe Binge Eating Scale8 items—0 (no) and 1 (yes); 1 question—0 to 7 days
Predictor variables
 Burnout: emotional exhaustion406855 (M=3.16; SD=1.34)Recoded for prevalence:
<27—symptom absent; ≥27—symptom present35
Maslach Burnout Inventory9 items; 0 (never) to 6 (every day)
 Psychiatric morbidity3931233 (M=2.19; SD=0.55)Recoded for prevalence:
0, 1 into 0 and 2, 3 into 2; and
<4—symptom absent;
≥4—symptom present34
General Health Questionnaire-1212 items; 0 (better than usual/not
at all) to 3 (much less
than usual/much less capable)
 Effort scale4153M=3.3 (SD=0.6)N/AEffort-Reward scale3 items; 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree)
 Work-family Imbalance4165M=5.26 (SD=1.38)N/AWork-Family Conflict scale5 items; 0 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree)
 Coping: substance use3922M=2.33 (SD=0.88)N/AThe Brief COPE2 items; 1 (I usually do not do this) to 4 (I usually do this a lot)
 Coping: self-blame3932M=1.37 (SD=0.61)N/A
  • N/A, not available.