Table 4

Estimates from multilevel models showing mean differences in grip strength (kg) and mean differences in grip strength change (kg/year) by childhood cognition in 1161 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development men (2515 observations), adjusted for age term, standardised adult height and age at first walking and then additionally adjusted for each set of adult factors in turn

Childhood cognition (SD)Childhood cognition (SD)2*Childhood cognition (SD)×age (year)
Reg. coeff.95% CIP valueReg.
95% CIP valueReg. coeff.95% CIP value
Adjusted for age, adult height, walking, walking2 −0.44−1.14 to 0.250.2−0.52−0.94 to − to 0.130.002
Additional adjustments in turn
 BMI*, BMI2 BMI×age−0.37−1.06 to 0.320.3−0.51−0.93 to − to 0.120.005
 Health conditions 53 years
 Health conditions×age
−0.55−1.25 to 0.150.1−0.53−0.95 to − to 0.130.002
 Qualifications−0.79−1.62 to 0.040.06−0.56−0.98 to −0.140.0090.080.03 to 0.130.002
 Verbal memory*
  Verbal memory×age
−0.12−0.93 to 0.690.7−0.54−0.96 to −−0.03 to 0.090.3
 Own social class 53 years
  Own social class×age
−0.80−1.59 to 0.000.05−0.52−0.94 to − to 0.130.01
 Smoking and physical activity*−0.64−1.34 to 0.060.07−0.56−0.97 to − to 0.130.001
  • *Time varying covariates.

  • BMI, body mass index.