Table 2

Nested NAFLD case–control demographics. Diabetes defined as formal diagnosis, treatment or fasting glucose >126 mg/dL

DemographyNAFLD n=1040Control n=1049p value
Age, mean (SD)48.34 (10.74)45.98 (12.31)*
Gender
 Male, n (%)473 (45.5)339 (32.3)*
 Female, n (%)567 (54.5)710 (67.7)
Domicile
 Rural, n (%)417 (40.1)543 (51.8)*
 Urban, n (%)623 (59.9)506 (48.2)
Literacy, n (%)1018 (97.9)1027 (97.9)0.978
BMI, mean (SD)26.90 (4.16)24.30 (4.08)*
Underweight, n (%) <18.5 kg/m2 4 (0.4)68 (6.5)
Normal weight, n (%) 18.5–22.9 kg/m2 165 (15.9)336 (32)
Overweight, n (%) 23–24.9 kg/m2 195 (18.8)222 (21.2)
 Obese, n (%) >25 kg/m2 675 (64.9)423 (40.3)
Diabetes, n (%)355 (34.13)195 (18.59)*
 HOMA-IR, median (IQR)0.13 (0.13)0.07 (0.07)*
Metabolic syndrome, n (%)417 (40.1)240 (22.88)*
 Cholesterol, mean (SD)219.19 (44.05)212.26 (44.34)*
 HDL, mean (SD)47.65 (11.25)50.35 (11.83)*
 Triglycerides, median (IQR)133 (85)94.5 (59)*
 LDL-C, mean (SD)140.71 (39.04)140.03 (38.87)0.689
  • HOMA-IR ((fasting insulin*fasting glucose)/405) calculated for those not on treatment for diabetes. LDL-C=(total cholesterol−HDL cholesterol−(triglycerides/5)). 

  • *p<0.001.

  • BMI, body mass index; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.