Table 1

Shows the distribution of the outcomes and covariates in the patient cohort

No PainMildModerateSevereP value
n6841933621
Age (mean [SD])71.50 (10.61)67.75 (10.54)64.98 (9.73)65.13 (12.85)<0.001
Gender = male (%)45 (66.2)333 (79.5)282 (83.9)14 (66.7)0.003
OASIS (mean [SD])31.96 (7.25)30.32 (6.47)31.44 (6.35)30.57 (6.20)0.056
E_score (%)<0.001
 04 (5.9)96 (22.9)87 (25.9)7 (33.3)
 112 (17.6)116 (27.7)97 (28.9)4 (19.0)
 212 (17.6)81 (19.3)79 (23.5)4 (19.0)
 310 (14.7)61 (14.6)46 (13.7)3 (14.3)
 412 (17.6)29 (6.9)16 (4.8)1 (4.8)
 56 (8.8)19 (4.5)8 (2.4)2 (9.5)
 67 (10.3)8 (1.9)2 (0.6)0 (0.0)
 72 (2.9)4 (1.0)1 (0.3)0 (0.0)
 80 (0.0)4 (1.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 93 (4.4)1 (0.2)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Mortality
 In hospital (%)9 (13.2)5 (1.2)1 (0.3)0 (0.0)<0.001
 30 day (%)10 (14.7)10 (2.4)1 (0.3)0 (0.0)<0.001
 1 year (%)16 (23.5)22 (5.3)7 (2.1)1 (4.8)<0.001
Narcotics
 First 24 hours (SD)4.17 (5.52)6.24 (9.85)9.28 (25.89)6.38 (8.07)0.059
 Daily mean (SD)5.23 (5.43)8.43 (7.82)17.09 (89.87)8.68 (8.06)0.162
 Total narcotics (SD)37.30 (101.39)21.19 (70.34)29.15 (188.08)9.87 (8.94)0.682
  • E_score, Elixhauser index. OASIS score ranges from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe disease. Elixhauser index ranges from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating a greater number of comorbid conditions; OASIS, oxford acute severity of illness score.