Table 1

Study characteristics

Year, country
Setting/recruitment source
Study designResearch question/aim of studyParticipants demographics
Marital status
Theoretical approachMethod of data analysis
2016, UK
Two generic sexual health clinics and one specialist sexual health clinic for (LGBT) patients in London.
Mixed method study survey and individual semistructured interviews.To illustrate the use of a case series mixed methods for integrating interviews and survey data on gay and bisexual men’s experiences of negative and abusive behaviour in the context of intimate relationships.n=19 for interviews.
Mean age 39 years (range 21%–57%).
Asian/Asian British 5.3%. White 89.5%.
Other 5.3%.
Paid employment 100%.
Pragmatism (‘what works as the truth regarding the research questions under investigation’).The initial coding framework followed a deductive approach followed by open coding in an inductive process which allowed new themes to emerge.
Donovan et al 12
2006, UK
Individuals were recruited from community groups and networks across the UK.
Mixed method study using UK wide survey, focus group and individual interviews.To provide a detailed picture of same sex domestic abuse, while at the same time being able to compare same sex and heterosexual experiences of such abuse.Five focus groups with lesbians, gay men and heterosexual women and men (n=21).
Semistructured interviews with 67 individuals identifying as lesbian (19), gay male (19), heterosexual (14 women, 9 men), bisexual (3) or queer (3).
None stated.No details.
2014 (PhD thesis), USA
Participants identified via social service agencies and social organisations, as well as social media sites serving African-American gay men.
Qualitative interview study.To better understand how the intersections of race, gender and sexual orientation inform African-American gay males’ definition, experiences and help-seeking behaviours related to intimate partner violence.13 male volunteers 18–40 years identified as African-American, black, of African descent and/or biracial; identified their sexual orientation as gay or same-gender-loving; and had experienced at least one form of intimate abuse within a past and/or current relationship.Constructivist grounded theory approach.
In addition, constructivist epistemological perspective as a part of the grounded theory approach was also used.
Constant comparative analysis involves four phases of coding: initial coding, focused coding, axial coding and theoretical coding.
Hines and Douglas14
2010, USA
Men recruited via Domestic Abuse Helpline for Men and Women, a national IPV hotline specialising in men victims, web sites, newsletters, blogs and electronic mailing lists.
Online questionnaire or telephone interview
(same questions).
An in-depth, descriptive examination of men who sustained severe IPV from their women partners within the previous year and sought help.299 men.
Mean age=40.49 years.
White 86.8%.
All in heterosexual relationships.
56.5% currently in a relationship with their woman partners,
47.5% marriage followed by separation (17.9%).
Relationships lasted on average 8.2 years.
None stated.Qualitative responses were coded independently by two research assistants and any discrepancies were resolved by the first author.
2016 (PhD thesis), UK
Men recruited by domestic abuse services UK-wide (n=2) mental health support services and drug/alcohol support services UK-wide (n=9). Snowballing technique (n=2) Presentation of preliminary findings at 2 UK conferences (n=2) online support forums for male victims of domestic abuse and male victim support blogs (n=8).
Qualitative interview study.To explore: (a) men’s experiences of female-perpetrated IPV, including their experiences of physical and psychological/emotional abuse; (b) men’s help-seeking experiences and/or their perceptions of utilising support services/support networks; and (c) barriers to men leaving their abusive relationship.n=23.
Men >18 years who self-identified as a victim of female-perpetrated IPV.
Race/ethnicity: white British (16), white other (5), British Pakistani (1), black Afro-Caribbean (1).
Age: (range) 24–74 (mean: 47).
Length of abusive relationship (range): 6 weeks – 31 years (mean: 12 years 5 months).
Number of abusive relationships: One (17), Two (6).
Contextualist perspective (straddles essentialism and constructionism).Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data following the six-phase process set out by Braun and Clarke (2006).
2016, Portugal
Male victims of IPV in heterosexual relationships who had sought formal help from DV agencies.
Participant’s demographics followed by semistructured interview.To explore the experience of male Portuguese victims who had sought help for their victimisation.n=10.
Mean age 51.6 years (range 35–75 years).
50% had <12 years education n=6 employed n=4 retired n=3 lower class n=3 lower middle class n=2 middle class n=2 upper middle class.
None stated.Thematic analysis.
Transcripts analysed based on emerging themes. To ensure validity and credibility of results, different strategies were adopted, including constant comparative analysis and a dense description of the meanings.
McCarrick et al 17
2016, UK
Charitable agency that support male victims and via advertisements placed on a website.
Face-to-face and Skype qualitative interviews.
To explore men’s experience of the UK CJS following female-perpetrated IPV.Six male participants (45–60 years) over 18 years and having experienced female-perpetrated IPV and subsequent involvement with the CJS.Interpretative phenomenological analysis.Interviews were transcribed and analysed by the researcher in a process of reflexivity.
Morgan et al 18
2014, UK
Men recruited from GP surgeries in south west of England.
Cross-sectional survey and follow-up interviews investigating the impact of men’s relationships on their health.To expand the current body of knowledge on male help-seeking in relation to DVA by measuring and characterising help-seeking practices.No demographic details.Grounded theory approach.A coding framework was used that was developed in conjunction with colleagues across the wider study.
Morgan and Wells19
2016, UK
Participants recruited from websites of UK-based organisations supporting male victims of IPV.
Semistructured interview methodology.To investigate male victims’ experiences of female-perpetrated
Researchers asked participants not to disclose their demographics of age, occupation, etc.
Range of length of relationship 3–13 years range of time since relationship finished 18 months–14 years.
Interpretative phenomenological (theory) analysis (IPA).The scripts were transcribed verbatim from audio recordings using the Jefferson technique and analysed using IPA.
Simmons et al 20
2016, Sweden
Primary healthcare.
Qualitative interview study.To develop a theoretical model concerning male victims’ processes of disclosing experiences of victimisation to healthcare professionals in Sweden.Informants were recruited from respondents in a quantitative study of being subjected to IPV, conducted in men and women in the general population (n=1510, response rate 37%) and at two primary healthcare centres (n=129, response rate 70%) recruited from the random population sample.Constructivist grounded theory.After each interview, codes and categories created in analysis helped to choose the next informant, and the guide was modified to explore related topics and elaborate categories. A constant comparative analysis both within an interview and between interviews. Next focused coding was used in which most significant line-by-line codes were used.
Tsui et al 21
2010, USA
960 DVA services across USA.
Survey consists of five closed ended questions two open-ended questions
and 13 demographic questions.
To examine the needs of male victims to identify factors that block men from seeking help.Sixty-eight agency representatives responded.
Mean age 43 years.
72% female.
81% Caucasian.
7.3% Hispanic.
5.9% African-American.
88.2% held an academic degree.
84% were professional or managerial staff in the DVA organisations.
None stated.Qualitative data were coded to thematic units. Similar units with meaning related to male victims were assigned to categories and organised into themes and further reviewed by research team to enhance face and content validity.
Valentine et al 22
2013, USA
Men recruited from university-affiliated, outpatient HIV/AIDS primary care clinic.
Qualitative interview study.To qualitatively explore the ways in which such men find meaning following their experiences of partner abuse.(n=28) ≥18 years, English-speaking, currently receiving HIV-related care at the clinic site.
Mean age 43.6, SD 5 6.2.
Male 24, transgender 4, gay 23, bisexual 3,
bispirit 1, other 1.
Currently in relationship 12.
Living with partner 6.
Relationship status unknown 10.
White/European 13, black/African-American 8, Latino/Hispanic 2.
American, Indian/Alaskan Native 3. Biracial/multiracial 3.
None stated.Data analysis was conducted by a team who contributed to the reading, coding, categorising, Consistent with conventional content analysis, no codes, categories or themes were specified a priori. To establish dependability, all three reviewers met to compare codes and reach a consensus.
  • CJS, Criminal Justice System; DV, domestic violence; GP, general practitioner; IPV, intimate partner violence; LGBT, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender.