Table 3

Comparison of mHealth applications for engagement in HIV care

WYZAllyQuest25 Battle Viro24 EPIC Allies23 PositiveLinks22 Care4Today21 SMART20
Phase of developmentPilot studyPilot studyFormative studyEfficacy testingPilot studyObservational-descriptiveProof of principle
Intervention typeIndividual, dyadic and community levelIndividual level with some peer-to-peer supportIndividual level with some peer-to-peer supportIndividual level with some social supportIndividual and dyadic levelIndividual levelIndividual level
FrameworkIMB modelSocial cognitive theory, narrative communication and persuasive technologyIMB modelIMB modelGrounded in past evidence, no specific theory implicatedTechnology acceptance model and theory of planned behaviourCommon sense model of self-regulation
Study designSingle-arm trialSingle-arm trialCross sectionalRandomised controlled trialSingle-arm trialProspective cohortRandomised controlled trial
MethodsSurvey; mobile analytics; chart review; interviewsSurvey; mobile analytics; interviewsSurvey; interviewsSurvey; chart review; mobile analytics; interviewsSurvey; mobile analytics; chart reviewFocus groupsSurvey; mobile analytics; chart review
Outcome measuresFeasibility; acceptability; usabilityFeasibility; acceptability; usabilityFeasibility; acceptability; usabilityEfficacy; acceptability; perceived impact; sustainabilityAcceptability; feasibility; visit attendance; viral suppressionFeasibility; acceptability; perceived utilityAdherence; viral load;
HIV and ART attitudes; perceived utility
Sample sizen=76 YLWH
n=10 HCP
Follow-up6 months4 weeks45–60 min26 weeks12 months3 months3 months
Population of interestYLWH
(18–29 years old)
(16–24 years old)
(14–26 years old)
(16–24 years old)
Adults living with HIV with high-acuity care needs
(≥18 years old)
Adults living with HIV
(≥18 years old)
Adults living with HIV
(≥18 years old)
Study locationUSAUSAUSAUSAUSAUSANew Zealand
HIV care targetsEngagement in care and viral suppressionViral suppressionViral suppressionEngagement in care and viral suppressionLinkage to care, engagement in care and viral suppressionViral suppressionViral suppression
Intervention deliveryMobile appMobile appPrototype+compatible pill monitoring organiserMobile appMobile phone+cell service+mobile appMobile appMobile app
Platform accessibilityAndroid and iOSiOSiOSAndroid and iOSAndroidAndroid and iOSAndroid
  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; HCP, healthcare provider; IMB, information, motivation, behavioural skills; MSM, men who have sex with men; TWSM, transgender women who have sex with men; YLWH, youth and young adults living with HIV.