Table 1

Participant characteristics by study group: pre and post propensity score matching

Prematch
n (%) or mean (±SD)
Postmatch
n (%) or mean (±SD)
TCN (n=95)Control (n=2594)TCN (n=94)†Control (n=94)
Release year
 20121 (1.1)465 (17.9) *** 1 (1.1)0 (0)
 201330 (31.6)616 (23.7)29 (30.1)23 (24.5)
 201461 (64.2)841 (32.4)61 (64.9)68 (72.3)
 20153 (3.2)672 (25.9)3 (3.2)3 (3.2)
Male76 (80)2294 (88.4) ** 76 (80.9)75 (79.8)
Race/Ethnicity
 White30 (31.6)191 (7.4) *** 29 (30.9)31 (33.0)
 Black51 (53.7)1271 (49.0)51 (54.3)48 (51.1)
 Hispanic14 (14.7)1125 (43.4)14 (14.9)15 (16.0)
Age (at release)42.6 (±10.3)37.53 (±10.5) *** 42.6 (±10.4)40.5 (±10.8)
DOC assessment score
 Mental health2.0 (±0.8)1.7 (±0.8) *** 2.0 (±0.8)2.1 (±0.9)
 Substance abuse3.4 (±1.2)3.0 (±1.3) *** 3.4 (±1.2)3.4 (±1.2)
 Education2.4 (±0.8)2.7 (±0.9) ** 2.4 (±0.8)2.7 (±0.9)
 Vocation3.2 (±0.7)3.3 (±0.7) * 3.2 (±0.7)3.2 (±0.8)
 Crime severity2.4 (±1.1)2.1 (±1.1) ** 2.4 (±1.1)2.6 (±1.2)
 Medical problems2.48 (±0.8)1.9 (±0.9) *** 2.5 (±0.8)2.4 (±1.0)
Index incarceration days242.8 (±309.8)148.9 (±312.6) ** 239.9 (±312.4)306.3 (±1109.9)
Release type ***
 Under supervision38 (41.1)388 (15.0)38 (40.9)34 (36.2)
 Other56 (58.9)2206 (85.0)55 (59.1)60 (63.3)
Proportion of life spent in DOC42 (±19.9)37.7 (±19.0) * 41.9 (±20.0)41.6 (±19.2)
Behavioural health history
 Any inpatient, mental health14 (14.7)103 (4.0) *** 13 (13.8)11 (11.7)
 Proportion life involved with DMHAS17.9 (±15.2)12.7 (±11.2) *** 17.4 (±14.6)18.0 (±12.2)
Medical chronic condition
 Myocardial infarction5 (5.3)33 (1.3) ** 5 (5.3)4 (4.3)
 Dementia3 (3.2)8 (0.3) *** 3 (3.2)1 (1.1)
 Diabetes with or without complications20 (21.1)294 (11.3) ** 19 (20.2)15 (16.0)
 Moderate or severe liver disease5 (5.3)17 (0.7) *** 5 (5.3)4 (4.3)
 Other GI conditions52 (54.7)1116 (43.0) * 51 (54.4)53 (56.4)
 Opioid abuse/dependence37 (38.9)733 (28.3) * 36 (38.3)37 (39.4)
 Alcohol abuse/dependence51 (53.7)861 (33.2) *** 50 (53.2)50 (53.2)
 Weighted CCI score2.0 (±3.0)1.25 (±2.1) * 2.0 (±3.0)2.5 (±3.4)
 Total number of chronic conditions1.1 (±1.6)0.8 (±1.2) ** 1.1 (±1.6)1.3 (±1.7)
  • Boldface indicates statistical significance (*p≤0.05, **p≤0.01, ***p≤0.0001.

  • †One TCN case was excluded from the analysis since no matching case could be identified.

  • CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; DMHAS, Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services; DOC, Department of Correction; GI, gastrointestinal; TCN, Transitions Clinic Network.