Table 3

Univariable and multivariable analyses of factors associated with overestimated hearing impairment

VariablesTotal population with SHDOverestimated HI*Univariable analysisMultivariable analysis
Weighted frequencyMean† or %Weighted frequencyPrevalence (%)‡OR95% CIP valueOR95% CIP value
Personal factors
Age (years)3 089 06056.3†1 451 85247.00.9150.904 to 0.927 <0.0001 0.9050.890 to 0.921 <0.0001
Sex
 Male1 574 26251.0682 37243.30.7410.576 to 0.954 0.020 0.6600.424 to 1.0290.067
 Female1 514 79749.0769 48050.8Referent
Smoke
 Never1 568 37050.8787 88550.2Referent
 Past smoker§799 93025.9314 07339.30.6400.458 to 0.895 0.006 0.8660.520 to 1.4451.000
 Current smoker§720 76023.3349 89448.50.9350.640 to 1.3651.0000.5970.351 to 1.0170.061
Drinking alcohol in past year
 Non-drinker998 49532.3343 98434.5Referent
 Drinker2 090 56567.71 107 86753.02.1451.650 to 2.788 <0.0001 1.1500.784 to 1.6870.475
Marital status
 Ever married2 792 85690.41 191 92542.70.1040.048 to 0.223 <0.0001 1.2760.511 to 3.1840.601
 Never married296 2049.6259 92787.8Referent
Waist circumference (cm)3 089 06083.2†1 451 85247.00.9770.964 to 0.991 0.001 0.9880.964 to 1.0140.363
Body mass index (kg/m2)3 089 06024.0†1 451 85247.01.0180.979 to 1.0590.375
Socioeconomic factors
Income
 Lower847 73627.4232 34727.4Referent
 Lower middle§862 38627.9399 47646.32.2861.481 to 3.526 <0.0001 0.9570.577 to 1.5841.000
 Upper middle§681 33822.1387 64156.93.4962.187 to 5.588 <0.0001 1.2440.739 to 2.0930.951
 Upper§697 59922.6432 38862.04.3182.833 to 6.582 <0.0001 1.4680.857 to 2.5140.266
Education
 Less than high school1 610 01052.1515 57932.0Referent
 High school or more1 479 05047.9936 27363.33.6612.858 to 4.690 <0.0001 1.1660.792 to 1.7160.436
Employment status
 Employed1 738 45056.3902 56851.91.5751.224 to 2.027 0.0004 0.9120.625 to 1.3300.631
 Unemployed1 350 60943.7549 28440.7Referent
Quality of life
EQ-5D (%)
Physical activity (mobility)
 Normal2 262 05773.21 203 77453.2Referent
 Limited827 00226.8248 07830.00.3770.291 to 0.488 <0.0001
Physical activity (self-care)
 Normal2 855 54792.41 396 58848.9Referent
 Limited233 5137.655 26423.70.3240.200 to 0.524 <0.0001
Physical activity (usual activities)
 Normal2 566 84083.11 296 75850.5Referent
 Limited522 22016.9155 09429.70.4140.306 to 0.560 <0.0001
Physical activity (pain/discomfort)
 Normal2 084 20367.51 008 23248.4Referent
 Limited1 004 85732.5443 62044.10.8440.667 to 1.0670.156
Physical activity (anxiety/depression)
 Normal2 575 10683.41 205 70846.8Referent
 Limited513 95416.6246 14447.91.0440.769 to 1.4180.783
EQ-5D index (%)
 Index<0.75352 50011.4108 67630.8Referent
 0.75≤index < 1.00§1 112 49536.0518 79946.61.9601.219 to 3.151 0.003 0.9870.563 to 1.7301.000
 Index=1.00§1 624 06552.6824 37650.82.3121.470 to 3.638 <0.0001 0.7050.389 to 1.2750.373
 EQ-VAS (0 to 100)3 089 06069.1†1 451 85247.01.0111.005 to 1.017 0.001
Psychological factors
Perceived health status
 Good§759 29724.6402 66553.01.1640.798 to 1.6970.7361.3420.893 to 2.0170.212
 Fair1 377 23844.6678 23249.2Referent
 Poor§952 52430.8370 95538.90.6570.484 to 0.892 0.004 0.9570.640 to 1.4311.000
Body shape perception
 Too thin§549 06017.8185 18833.70.6410.422 to 0.973 0.035 1.0310.608 to 1.7461.000
 Just right1 290 61641.8571 13544.3Referent
 Too fat§1 249 38340.4695 53055.71.5821.158 to 2.162 0.002 1.3120.874 to 1.9680.269
Stress level
 Low2 134 22669.1928 48843.5Referent
 High954 83430.9523 36454.81.5751.198 to 2.072 0.001 0.9800.698 to 1.3760.908
Depressive mood lasting for 2 weeks
 No2 455 97379.51 154 09747.0Referent
 Yes633 08720.5297 75547.01.0020.730 to 1.3750.992
Health-related factors
Vigorous physical activity practice
 Non-exercising2 676 41186.61 206 56145.1Referent
 Exercising412 64813.4245 29159.41.7851.207 to 2.641 0.004 1.2320.798 to 1.9010.346
Moderate physical activity practice
 Non-exercising2 793 22690.41 278 20945.8Referent
 Exercising295 8349.6173 64358.71.6841.103 to 2.571 0.016 1.1910.738 to 1.9230.474
Light physical activity practice
 Non-exercising1 925 73362.3880 94845.7Referent
 Exercising1 163 32737.7570 90349.11.1430.887 to 1.4730.302
Restricted use of medical services
 Yes714 03923.1341 56947.81.0450.774 to 1.4090.775
 No2 375 02176.91 110 28346.7Referent
Health screening in past 2 years
 Yes1 904 10261.6862 21445.30.8360.651 to 1.0730.1581.1340.823 to 1.5620.441
 No1 184 95838.4589 63849.8Referent
Hospital visit in past 2 weeks
 Yes1 326 44542.9560 53542.30.7150.567 to 0.902 0.005 1.1630.873 to 1.5510.302
 No1 762 61557.1891 31750.6Referent
Hospitalisation in past year
 Yes423 01913.7211 19949.91.1460.775 to 1.6950.495
 No2 666 04186.31 240 65246.5Referent
Obesity occurrence
 Underweight§112 5723.650 94345.30.9550.467 to 1.9571.000
 Normal1 941 25462.8900 54546.4Referent
 Overweight§1 035 23433.5500 36448.31.0810.819 to 1.4281.000
Medical history
Hypertension
 Yes937 03130.3318 68134.00.4630.361 to 0.595 <0.0001 1.5011.061 to 2.123 0.022
 No2 152 02969.71 133 17152.7Referent
Myocardial infarction
 Yes47 0341.510 66422.70.3260.101 to 1.0520.0610.5820.129 to 2.6210.480
 No3 042 02698.51 441 18847.4Referent
Angina
 Yes105 5693.425 71924.40.3520.198 to 0.625 0.0004 0.8480.422 to 1.7050.643
 No2 983 49096.61 426 13247.8Referent
Asthma
 Yes142 0994.651 16236.00.6210.342 to 1.1280.1170.9910.482 to 2.0370.980
 No2 946 96195.41 400 69047.5Referent
Depression
 Yes167 8705.496 60057.51.5661.009 to 2.432 0.046 1.7721.041 to 3.016 0.035
 No2 921 19094.61 355 25146.4Referent
Renal failure
 Yes27 9620.9580120.70.2920.049 to 1.7330.1750.4420.065 to 2.9870.402
 No3 061 09899.11 446 05147.2Referent
Diabetes mellitus
 Yes375 98412.2113 86830.30.4470.303 to 0.658 <0.0001 1.1400.725 to 1.7920.569
 No2 713 07587.81 337 98449.3Referent
Auditory factors
Tinnitus
 No1 787 25457.9952 52353.3Referent
 Yes1 301 80542.1499 32938.40.5450.427 to 0.697 <0.0001 0.5230.391 to 0.699 <0.0001
  Occupational noise exposure
 Yes630 80520.4290 17846.00.9510.687 to 1.3150.760
 No2 458 25479.61 161 67447.3Referent
Laboratory measures
Systolic BP (mm Hg)3 089 060122.8†1 451 85247.00.9740.966 to 0.981 <0.0001 0.9960.984 to 1.0080.469
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)3 089 06076.5†1 451 85247.01.0110.999 to 1.0230.0831.0130.993 to 1.0330.215
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)2 931 858191.5†1 396 83247.61.0010.997 to 1.0040.723
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)2 931 85850.7†1 396 83247.61.0131.003 to 1.023 0.011
Serum TG (mg/dL)2 931 858141.3†1 396 83247.60.9990.998 to 1.0000.149
Haemoglobin (g/dL)2 913 75014.1†1 392 30847.81.0380.953 to 1.1320.392
Haematocrit (%)2 913 75041.9†1 392 30847.81.0120.980 to 1.0450.463
BUN (mg/dL)2 931 85814.9†1 535 02652.40.9040.873 to 0.936 <0.0001
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)2 931 8580.9†1 535 02652.40.3300.169 to 0.646 0.001
Urine protein
 Negative2 602 15589.21 208 02346.4Referent
 Positive314 67010.8151 92048.31.0770.700 to 1.6580.734
Urine glucose
 Negative2 812 93596.41 321 89847.0Referent
 Positive103 8903.638 04536.60.6520.342 to 1.2430.193
  • Bold text indicates significant differences (p<0.05).

  • *Overestimated HI was defined as having SHD without AHL.

  • †Continuous variables are denoted by the mean.

  • ‡Prevalence of overestimated HI in total population with SHD.

  • §Probability values and 95% CIs for OR were corrected using Bonferroni’s method for cases with multiple testing.

  • AHL, audiometrically measured hearing loss; BP, blood pressure; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; EQ-5D, Euro Qol-5D; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HI, hearing impairment; SHD, self-reported hearing difficulty; TG, triglycerides.