Table 2

Univariable and multivariable analyses of factors associated with underestimated hearing impairment

VariablesTotal population with AHLUnderestimated HI*Univariable analysisMultivariable analysis
Weighted frequencyMean† or %Weighted frequencyPrevalence (%)‡OR95% CIP valueOR95% CIP value
Personal factor
Age (years)4 660 59462.0†3 023 38664.90.9770.968 to 0.986 <0.0001 0.9790.967 to 0.991 0.001
Sex
 Male2 594 82455.71 702 93365.61.0780.897 to 1.2950.425
 Female2 065 77044.31 320 45363.9Referent
Smoke
 Never2 165 73146.51 385 24664.0Referent
 Past smoker§1 369 41429.4883 55764.51.0250.804 to 1.3061.000
 Current smoker§1 125 44924.1754 58367.01.1460.850 to 1.5461.227
Drinking alcohol in past year
 Non-drinker1 666 79435.81 012 28360.7Referent
 Drinker2 993 80064.22 011 10367.21.3231.102 to 1.589 0.003 1.0250.831 to 1.2660.814
Marital status
 Ever married4 518 75297.02 917 82064.60.6260.289 to 1.3600.236
 Never married141 8433.0105 56674.4Referent
Waist circumference (cm)4 660 59484.0†3 023 38664.90.9980.988 to 1.0080.668
Body mass index (kg/m2)4 660 59424.0†3 023 38664.91.0120.982 to 1.0420.447
Socioeconomic factors
Income
 Lower1 579 96533.9964 57561.1Referent
 Lower middle§1 296 18227.8833 27164.31.1480.853 to 1.5470.8000.8060.585 to 1.1110.324
 Upper middle§934 92220.1641 22668.61.3930.994 to 1.9520.0570.9490.659 to 1.3661.000
 Upper§849 52618.2584 31568.81.4060.999 to 1.9780.0520.9630.651 to 1.4271.000
Education
 Less than high school2 883 77961.91 789 34962.0Referent
 High school or more1 776 81538.11 234 03869.51.3911.134 to 1.704 0.002 1.0870.853 to 1.3860.498
Employment status
 Employed2 566 43755.11 730 55467.41.2831.066 to 1.545 0.009 0.9660.777 to 1.2020.757
 Unemployed2 094 15844.91 292 83261.7Referent
Quality of life
EQ-5D (%)
Physical activity (mobility)
 Normal3 310 53071.02 252 24768.0Referent
 Limited1 350 06529.0771 14057.10.6260.516 to 0.759 <0.0001
Physical activity (self-care)
 Normal4 249 66291.22 790 70365.7Referent
 Limited410 9328.8232 68356.60.6820.509 to 0.915 0.011
Physical activity (usual activities)
 Normal3 832 35682.22 562 27466.9Referent
 Limited828 23817.8461 11255.70.6230.497 to 0.780 <0.0001
Physical activity (pain/discomfort)
 Normal3 243 38869.62 167 41766.8Referent
 Limited1 417 20630.4855 96960.40.7570.622 to 0.922 0.006
Physical activity (anxiety/depression)
 Normal4 020 86586.32 651 46765.9Referent
 Limited639 72913.7371 91958.10.7170.554 to 0.929 0.012
EQ-5D index (%)
 Index<0.75560 61612.0316 79356.5Referent
 0.75≤index < 1.00§1 479 60331.7885 90859.91.1480.841 to 1.5680.6380.8410.584 to 1.2100.573
 Index=1.00§2 620 37556.21 820 68669.51.7521.275 to 2.408 <0.0001 0.9300.606 to 1.4261.000
EQ-VAS (0 to 100)4 660 59462.0†3 023 38664.91.0081.003 to 1.012 0.001
Psychological factors
Perceived health status
 Good§1 279 05727.4922 42472.11.3111.007 to 1.707 0.043 1.2550.958 to 1.6430.120
 Average2 077 48044.61 378 47466.4Referent
 Bad§1 304 05828.0722 48855.40.6300.492 to 0.806 <0.0001 0.790.588 to 1.0610.148
Body shape perception
 Too thin§981 35521.1617 48262.90.9140.697 to 1.7070.456
 Just right2 055 52544.11 336 04465.0Referent
 Too fat§1 623 71534.81 069 86165.91.0400.814 to 1.3300.719
Stress level
 Low3 556 13476.32 350 39766.1Referent
 High1 104 46023.7672 99060.90.8000.629 to 1.0180.0701.0000.762 to 1.3130.998
Depressive mood lasting for 2 weeks
 No3 881 57883.32 579 70266.5Referent
 Yes779 01616.7443 68457.00.6680.513 to 0.868 0.003 0.7950.576 to 1.0970.162
Health-related factors
Vigorous physical activity practice
 Non-exercising4 150 54489.12 680 69464.6Referent
 Exercising510 05010.9342 69367.21.1230.822 to 1.5340.467
Moderate physical activity practice
 Non-exercising4 306 90892.42 791 89064.8Referent
 Exercising353 6877.6231 49665.51.0280.733 to 1.4420.873
Light physical activity practice
 Non-exercising2 957 61763.51 912 83364.7Referent
 Exercising1 702 97736.51 110 55465.21.0240.841 to 1.2470.814
Restricted use of medical services
 Yes864 99318.6492 52356.90.6610.516 to 0.847 0.001 0.8020.608 to 1.0590.120
 No3 795 60181.42 530 86366.7Referent
Health screening
 Yes2 954 15463.41 912 26664.70.9830.804 to 1.2020.870
 No1 706 44136.61 111 12065.1Referent
Hospital visit in past 2 weeks
 Yes1 922 26041.21 156 35060.20.7050.583 to 0.851 0.0003 0.8960.727 to 1.1040.301
 No2 738 33558.81 867 03768.2Referent
Hospitalisation in past year
 Yes572 50812.3360 68963.00.9120.700 to 1.1880.492
 No4 088 08687.72 662 69865.1Referent
Obesity occurrence
 Underweight§159 0203.497 39261.20.8940.491 to 1.6281.000
 Normal2 881 21661.81 840 50663.9Referent
 Overweight§1 620 35834.81 085 48967.01.1480.918 to 1.4350.335
Medical history
Hypertension
 Yes1 684 50136.11 066 15163.30.8980.742 to 1.0860.266
 No2 976 09463.91 957 23565.8Referent
Myocardial infarction
 Yes70 8211.534 45148.60.5070.258 to 0.999 0.050 0.5380.242 to 1.1980.129
 No4 589 77398.52 988 93565.1Referent
Angina
 Yes169 5423.689 69352.90.5960.381 to 0.900 0.024 0.8030.500 to 1.2880.363
 No4 491 05296.42 933 69465.3Referent
Asthma
 Yes192 5754.1101 63852.80.5910.389 to 0.899 0.014 0.7650.498 to 1.1750.221
 No4 468 01995.92 921 74865.4Referent
Depression
 Yes202 0394.3130 77064.70.9930.663 to 1.4870.974
 No4 458 55595.72 892 61664.9Referent
Renal failure
 Yes42 0690.919 90847.30.4830.184 to 1.2680.1390.7070.255 to 1.9560.503
 No4 618 52699.13 003 47965.0Referent
Diabetes mellitus
 Yes658 86814.1396 75160.20.7920.618 to 1.2020.0670.9740.740 to 1.2810.849
 No4 001 72785.92 626 63565.6Referent
Auditory factors
Tinnitus
 No3 040 24965.22 205 51872.5Referent
 Yes1 620 34534.8817 86950.50.3860.316 to 0.472 <0.0001 0.4250.344 to 0.525 <0.0001
Occupational noise exposure
 Yes800 62017.2459 99357.50.6830.520 to 0.897 0.006 0.5660.423 to 0.758 <0.0001
 No3 859 97482.82 563 39466.4Referent
Laboratory measures
Systolic BP (mm Hg)4 660 594126.4†3 023 38664.91.0010.996 to 1.0070.573
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)4 660 59477.0†3 023 38664.91.0151.006 to 1.024 0.002 1.0091.000 to 1.0190.058
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)4 394 622191.7†2 859 59665.11.0010.998 to 1.0030.683
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)4 394 62250.3†2 859 59665.11.0050.998 to 1.0130.158
Serum TG (mg/dL)4 394 622148.7†2 859 59665.11.0001.000 to 1.0010.411
Haemoglobin (g/dL)4 369 84514.1†2 848 40365.21.0290.968 to 1.0930.360
Haematocrit (%)4 369 84541.9†2 848 40365.21.0080.986 to 1.0320.471
BUN (mg/dL)4 394 62215.5†2 859 59665.10.9780.958 to 0.998 0.033
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)4 394 6220.9†2 859 59665.11.0950.725 to 1.6550.665
Urine protein
 Negative3 913 23889.12 519 10664.4Referent
 Positive477 95710.9315 20765.91.0720.774 to 1.4840.675
Urine glucose
 Negative4 199 40195.62 708 36564.5Referent
 Positive191 7934.4125 94865.71.0530.652 to 1.6990.833
  • Bold type indicates significant differences (p<0.05).

  • *Underestimated HI was defined as having AHL without SHD.

  • †Continuous variables are denoted by the mean.

  • ‡Prevalence of underestimated HI in total population with AHL.

  • §Probability values and 95% CIs for ORs were corrected using Bonferroni’s method for cases with multiple testing.

  • AHL, audiometrically measured hearing loss; BP, blood pressure; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; EQ-5D, Euro Qol-5D; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HI, hearing impairment; SHD, self-reported hearing difficulty; TG, triglycerides.