Table 1

Demographic characteristics of the study population

Characteristic (n)Healthy (n=56)Infection (n=32)Sepsis (n=56)Septic shock (n=37)P values
Age, median (IQR)62 (54–67)59 (52–66)70 (56–78)70 (59–78)
Gender, % male67.971.966.175.6>0.05
SOFA Score01 (0–3)6 (4–7)7 (6–9)<0.001
28-d mortality (n [%])0013 (23.2)24 (64.8)<0.001
Comorbidities, n (%)
Cardiovascular disease03 (9.4)7 (12.5)2 (5.5)
 NYHA I/II320
 NYHA III/IV052
Respiratory disease1 (1.8)1 (3.1)15 (26.8)10 (27)
Liver disease03 (9.4)2 (3.6)1 (2.7)
 Child A000
 Child B210
 Child C111
Renal disease5 (8.9)2 (6.2)2 (3.6)1 (2.7)
 Need haemodialysis0221
 No haemodialysis5000
Abdominal disease14 (25)14 (43.9)14 (25)15 (40.5)
 Operation011315
 No operation141310
Gynaecological disease6 (10.7)000
Encephalopathy3 (5.4)2 (6.2)5 (8.9)2 (5.4)
Malignancy01 (3.1)2 (3.6)4 (10.8)
Other*15 (26.8)5 (15.6)9 (16)2 (5.4)
No comorbidities12 (21.4)1 (3.1)00
Aetiological agent, n (%)
 Gram-positive bacteria09 (28.2)17 (30.4)16 (43.2)
 Gram-negative bacteria07 (21.8)14 (25)10 (27)
 Virus02 (6)00
 Other microorganism†04 (13)4 (7.1)0
 Culture-negative infection‡010 (31)19 (33.9)10 (27)
 Polymicrobial infection002 (3.6)1 (2.8)
 No infection56 (100)000
Blood cultures, n (%)
 Obtained05 (15.6)52 (92.9)31 (83.8)
 Positive009 (17.3)11 (35.4)
  • *Including diabetes, autoimmune disease, thyroid nodule and polyp of the vocal cord.

  • †Including Mycoplasma pneumoniae and mould pneumoniae.

  • ‡Including chest radiography-positive pneumonia and fever of unknown origin with inflammatory markers elevated.

  • NYHA, New York Heart Association Functional Classification; SOFA, sequential [sepsis-related] organ failure assessment score.