Table 1

Baseline characteristics of anticoagulant-naive patients with atrial fibrillation initiating oral anticoagulants in 2015–2016

Characteristics (N; %*)NOACVKA n=65 010
Dabigatran
n=9085
Rivaroxaban
n=54 456
Apixaban
n=64 300
Total NOAC
n=1 27 841
NOAC: reduced doses5652 (62.2)19 429 (35.7)26 003 (40.4)51 084 (40.0)NA
Female sex4546 (50.0)26 147 (48.0)33 375 (51.9)64 068 (50.1)33 865 (52.1)
Age (years), mean (SD)74.1 (11.6)72.8 (11.9)75.3 (11.3)74.1 (11.6)78.0 (11.3)
 18–54548 (6.0)4007 (7.4)3172 (4.9)7727 (6.0)2361 (3.6)
 55–641117 (12.3)7651 (14.0)7117 (11.1)15 885 (12.4)5680 (8.7)
 65–742514 (27.7)16 057 (29.5)16 645 (25.9)35 216 (27.5)12 969 (19.9)
 75–791554 (17.1)9053 (16.6)10 692 (16.6)21 299 (16.7)9587 (14.7)
 ≥803352 (36.9)17 688 (32.5)26 674 (41.5)47 714 (37.3)34 413 (52.9)
 ≥90493 (5.4)2559 (4.7)4654 (7.2)7706 (6.0)8399 (12.9)
Deprivation index
 Quintile 1 (least deprived)1394 (15.3)10 265 (18.9)11 266 (17.5)22 925 (17.9)10 263 (15.8)
 Quintile 21586 (17.5)10 678 (19.6)12 496 (19.4)24 760 (19.4)11 884 (18.3)
 Quintile 31780 (19.6)10 701 (19.7)12 799 (19.9)25 280 (19.8)12 811 (19.7)
 Quintile 41917 (21.1)10 794 (19.8)13 142 (20.4)25 853 (20.2)14 272 (22.0)
 Quintile 5 (most deprived)2113 (23.3)11 172 (20.5)13 825 (21.5)27 110 (21.2)14 699 (22.6)
 Overseas departments295 (3.2)846 (1.6)772 (1.2)1913 (1.5)1081 (1.7)
First prescriber’s specialty
 Hospital practitioner3720 (40.9)22 905 (42.1)29 316 (45.6)55 941 (43.8)39 083 (60.1)
 General practitioner2062 (22.7)11 145 (20.5)11 590 (18.0)24 797 (19.4)15 539 (23.9)
 Private cardiologist3093 (34.0)18 978 (34.9)21 843 (34.0)43 914 (34.4)8511 (13.1)
 Private orthopaedic surgeon16 (0.2)100 (0.2)95 (0.1)211 (0.2)73 (0.1)
 Other private specialist168 (1.8)1149 (2.1)1276 (2.0)2593 (2.0)1583 (2.4)
CHA2DS2-VASc score†
 Mean score (SD)3.7 (1.6)3.5 (1.6)3.9 (1.6)3.7 (1.6)4.5 (1.6)
 0183 (2.0)1294 (2.4)847 (1.3)2324 (1.8)309 (0.5)
 1635 (7.0)4854 (8.9)3637 (5.7)9126 (7.1)1607 (2.5)
 ≥28267 (91.0)48 308 (88.7)59 816 (93.0)1 16 391 (90.1)63 094 (97.0)
 C (heart failure)2849 (31.4)17 805 (32.7)23 548 (36.6)44 202 (34.6)32 727 (50.3)
 H (antihypertensive drugs)7547 (83.1)44 260 (81.3)54 596 (84.9)106 403 (83.2)59 139 (91.0)
 D(iabetes)1959 (21.6)11 279 (20.7)14 087 (21.9)27 325 (21.4)18 806 (28.9)
 S(troke: ATE)1207 (13.3)4930 (9.1)8448 (13.1)14 585 (11.4)10 638 (16.4)
 V(ascular diseases)2242 (24.7)13 924 (25.6)18 766 (29.2)34 932 (27.3)28 894 (44.4)
Age ≥75 and arterial thromboembolic events†769 (8.5)3126 (5.7)5608 (8.7)9503 (7.4)7762 (11.9)
Age <65 and no arterial thromboembolic events†1510 (16.6)11 074 (20.3)9396 (14.6)21 980 (17.2)7035 (10.8)
HAS-BLED score†
 Mean score (SD)2.0 (0.9)1.9 (0.9)2.1 (0.9)2.0 (0.9)2.7 (1.0)
 ≥32169 (23.9)11 388 (20.9)16 834 (26.2)30 391 (23.8)36 417 (56.0)
 A(bnormal)
  Renal function345 (3.8)2426 (4.5)3822 (5.9)6593 (5.2)14 260 (21.9)
  Liver function169 (1.9)967 (1.8)1106 (1.7)2242 (1.8)2372 (3.6)
 B(leeding)
  Predisposition182 (2.0)1161 (2.1)1605 (2.5)2948 (2.3)5873 (9.0)
  Major bleeding692 (7.6)3729 (6.8)5134 (8)9555 (7.5)9348 (14.4)
 D(rug/alcohol)
  Alcohol abuse‡272 (3.0)1698 (3.1)1730 (2.7)3700 (2.9)2923 (4.5)
  Drug–drug interactions947 (10.4)5838 (10.7)7570 (11.8)14 355 (11.2)23 451 (36.1)
   Parenteral anticoagulant (heparin)64 (0.7)331 (0.6)361 (0.6)756 (0.6)9824 (15.1)
   Antiplatelet drugs826 (9.1)5225 (9.6)6951 (10.8)13 002 (10.2)15 433 (23.7)
   NSAIDs72 (0.8)365 (0.7)344 (0.5)781 (0.6)212 (0.3)
Other comorbidities†
 Ischaemic heart disease1821 (20.0)11 321 (20.8)15 439 (24.0)28 581 (22.4)23 657 (36.4)
 Frailty (proxies)1666 (18.3)8971 (16.5)12 730 (19.8)23 367 (18.3)24 175 (37.2)
 Dementia or Parkinson’s disease524 (5.8)3204 (5.9)4125 (6.4)7853 (6.1)7437 (11.4)
 Psychiatric disorders1722 (19.0)10 593 (19.5)12 844 (20.0)25 159 (19.7)16 598 (25.5)
 Smoking‡1024 (11.3)6481 (11.9)7442 (11.6)14 947 (11.7)11 434 (17.6)
Comedications§
 Antiarrhythmics or cardiac glycosides5996 (66.0)35 761 (65.7)41 031 (63.8)82 788 (64.8)35 600 (54.8)
 Lipid-lowering agents3913 (43.1)22 250 (40.9)28 812 (44.8)54 975 (43.0)31 903 (49.1)
 Oral corticosteroids1105 (12.2)6964 (12.8)8079 (12.6)16 148 (12.6)8967 (13.8)
 Antiulcer agents4295 (47.3)24 842 (45.6)31 469 (48.9)60 606 (47.4)39 842 (61.3)
 Polymedication (≥5 ATC classes)3750 (41.3)21 725 (39.9)28 196 (43.9)53 671 (42.0)45 153 (69.5)
 Polymedication (≥10 ATC classes)738 (8.1)4653 (8.5)6246 (9.7)11 637 (9.1)14 947 (23.0)
  • *Unless otherwise stated.

  • †Comorbidities were defined using a rolling 1-year period following the initiation of OAC therapy.

  • ‡Smoking or alcohol data: measured by using proxies such as reimbursements for specific therapy or hospitalisations related to smoking or alcohol consumption/diseases.

  • §Comorbidities were defined using a rolling 4-month period preceding the initiation of OAC therapy.

  • ATC, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification; ATE, arterial thromboembolic events (ischaemic stroke, arterial systemic embolism or transient ischaemic attack); NOAC, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; VKA, vitamin K antagonist.