Table 2

HRs (95% CIs) for total and cause-specific mortality according to HBsAg status among 475 801 participants

Cause of deathHBsAg negativeHBsAg positive
No of deathsDeaths/
PYs
(1000)
HRNo of deathsDeaths/
PYs
(1000)
HRs (95% CIs)
Sex adjustedMultivariable adjusted* +BMI, WHR and baseline morbidity†+Presence of hepatitis or cirrhosis‡
Ischaemic heart diseases46241.011.001190.811.31 (1.08 to 1.58)1.29 (1.07 to 1.55)§1.31 (1.09 to 1.58)1.32 (1.09 to 1.59)
Cerebral infarction13830.301.00310.211.10 (0.76 to 1.59)1.09 (0.76 to 1.58)1.11 (0.77 to 1.61)1.14 (0.79 to 1.66)
Intracerebral haemorrhage40770.891.001130.771.42 (1.17 to 1.72)1.38 (1.14 to 1.67)1.38 (1.14 to 1.68)1.36 (1.12 to 1.66)
Liver cancer13390.291.004793.2714.19 (12.68 to 15.89)13.96 (12.47 to 15.63)13.95 (12.46 to 15.62)11.33 (10.03 to 12.79)
Other cancers98672.151.002611.781.07 (0.95 to 1.21)1.06 (0.94 to 1.21)1.06 (0.93 to 1.20)1.06 (0.94 to 1.21)
Respiratory diseases33830.741.00790.541.30 (1.04 to 1.64)§1.29 (1.02 to 1.62)§1.25 (1.00 to 1.58)1.24 (0.98 to 1.56)
Digestive diseases6880.151.001060.727.18 (5.79 to 8.91)6.92 (5.57 to 8.60)6.83 (5.49 to 8.50)4.77 (3.76 to 6.06)
Infections4100.091.001070.7310.84 (8.65 to 13.58)10.56 (8.42 to 13.25)10.30 (8.21 to 12.94)7.06 (5.48 to 9.09)
All other causes84881.851.002681.831.29 (1.14 to 1.46)1.27 (1.12 to 1.44)1.28 (1.13 to 1.45)1.27 (1.12 to 1.44)
All causes34 2597.481.00156310.692.04 (1.94 to 2.15)2.01 (1.91 to 2.12)2.01 (1.91 to 2.12)1.90 (1.80 to 2.01)
  • *Multivariable model was adjusted for sex (men or women); level of education (no formal school, primary school, middle school, high school, college, or university or higher); marital status (married, widowed, divorced or separated, or never married); alcohol consumption (less than weekly drinker, weekly drinker, daily drinker with an intake of <15, 15–29, 30–59 or ≥60 g/day); smoking status (non-smoker, former smoker having quit smoking ≥5 or <5 years previously or current smoker smoked <15, 15–24 or ≥25 cigarettes or equivalents per day); physical activity (MET-hours/day); intake frequencies of red meat, fresh fruits and vegetables (daily, 4–6 days/week, 1–3 days/week, monthly, or rarely or never) and family history of heart attack, stroke or cancer (presence or absence, only adjusted for in corresponding analysis of cause-specific mortality).

  • †Baseline morbidity included prevalent diabetes and hypertension (presence or absence).

  • ‡A composite variable of disease status (absence or presence), duration (<15 or ≥15 years) and treatment status at baseline (no or yes).

  • §P values <0.05 but not less than the significance level after Bonferroni correction (0.05 divided by 10 primary outcomes, ie, 0.005). All other HRs whose 95% CI did not include the null value were statistically significant after Bonferroni correction (p<0.005).

  • HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; PYs, person-years.