Table 3

Six-month accumulated per-participants costs (in €) by condition (based on intention-to-treat, n=302)

ACTonPainguided
(n=100)
ACTonPainunguided
(n=101)
Waitlist control group
(n=101)
Incremental costs
Difference, €
Mean, €(SD)Mean, €(SD)Mean, €(SD)ACTon
Painguided vs CG
ACTon
Painunguided vs CG
ACTon
Painguided vs
ACTon
Painunguided
Intervention299(−)69(−)0(−)29969230
Direct medical costs
  Healthcare costs
  Medical specialist576(478)511(381)511(382)65065
  Mental healthcare212(431)181(397)258(455)−46−7731
  Other medical specialist*369(515)357(435)406(576)−37−4912
  In-patient care (hospital)198(479)173(369)141(420)573225
  Day care147(687)122(381)306(1,584)−159−18425
  Rehabilitation190(794)134(507)191(773)-1−5756
  Medication1,092(2,748)784(1,438)660(1,638)432124308
  Therapeutic appliances65(139)86(222)46(96)1940−21
Direct non-medical costs
 Patient and family costs
  Travel131(229)105(150)101(100)30426
  Domestic help1,297(4,064)1,147(1,936)840(1,490)457307150
  Opportunity costs†1,553(1,965)1,925(3,251)1,759(3,116)−206166−372
Indirect costs
 Productivity losses
   Absenteeism517(1,647)647(1,979)1,133(3,333)−616−486−130
   Presenteeism300(740)320(774)555(1,360)−255−235−20
Total direct costs5,829(7,129)5,525(4,959)5,220(5,133)611306305
Total indirect costs817(1,978)966(2,283)1,688(3,735)−871−721−150
Total societal costs6,945(7,327)6,560(5,549)6,908(6,279)39−346385
  • CG, waitlist control group.

  • *E.g. physiotherapist, occupational therapist.

  • †E.g. for waiting time before treatment.