Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to HBsAg status and prevalent chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis at baseline among 475 801 participants

CharacteristicsHBsAg negativeHBsAg positive
Without hepatitis or cirrhosisWith hepatitis or cirrhosisWithout hepatitis or cirrhosisWith hepatitis or cirrhosis
No of participants456 975382913 3171680
Age (years)51.652.149.446.7
Men (%)40.559.445.061.2
Rural area (%)56.660.948.848.2
Married (%)90.991.390.389.9
Middle school and higher (%)49.649.147.251.2
Daily tobacco smoker (%)
Daily alcohol drinker (%)
Physical activity (MET-hours/day)21.520.221.619.6
Weekly consumption*
 Red meat (days)
 Fresh vegetables (days)
 Fresh fruits (days)
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.623.523.523.5
Postmenopausal (%)†50.852.550.951.0
Prevalent diabetes (%)
Prevalent hypertension (%)33.930.832.728.7
Duration of the disease (years)‡-17.7-13.0
Under treatment at baseline (%)‡-10.5-19.2
  • All variables were adjusted for age, sex and survey sites, as appropriate. We observed the statistically significant differences in all baseline characteristics between HBsAg-negative and HBsAg-positive groups, except for smoking in women (p=0.056) and prevalent diabetes (p=0.167).

  • *Weekly consumptions of red meat, fresh vegetables and fruits were calculated by assigning participants to the midpoint of their consumption category.

  • †Among 281 244 female participants.

  • ‡Among participants who had prevalent chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis at baseline.

  • HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; MET, metabolic equivalent of task.