Table 2

Lifestyle factors according to the severity of dysmenorrhoea

VariablesDysmenorrhoea (n (%))P value
No (486)Mild (574)Moderate-to-severe (92)
Smoking now0.193
 No481 (42.3)569 (50.0)88 (7.7)
 Yes5 (35.7)5 (35.7)4 (28.6)
Used to smoke0.604
 No471 (42.2)557 (50.0)87 (7.8)
 Yes9 (47.4)9 (47.4)1 (5.3)
Secondhand smoke<0.001
 No365 (46.5)363 (46.2)57 (7.3)
 Yes121 (33.2)209 (57.3)35 (9.6)
Alcohol drinking within 1 year0.110
 No325 (43.6)366 (49.1)54 (7.2)
 Yes160 (39.4)208 (51.2)38 (9.4)
Current alcohol drinking0.676
 No469 (42.3)551 (49.7)88 (7.9)
 Yes17 (39.5)22 (51.2)4 (9.3)
Vitamin E0.065
 No392 (41.3)474 (49.9)84 (8.8)
 Yes81 (46.8)85 (49.1)7 (4.0)
Supplementation of fish oil0.874
 No438 (42.0)519 (49.8)85 (8.2)
 Yes33 (42.9)38 (49.4)6 (7.8)
Leaf vegetables0.359
 <1 per week8 (57.1)6 (42.9)0 (0)
 1–3 per week73 (42.4)81 (47.1)18 (10.5)
 4–7 per week264 (40.7)330 (50.9)54 (8.3)
  ≥ 2 per day137 (44.1)154 (49.5)20 (6.4)
Fruits0.262
 >1 per week8 (32.0)15 (60.0)2 (8.0)
 1–3 per week90 (39.1)113 (49.1)27 (11.7)
 4–7 per week286 (43.4)331 (50.2)42 (6.4)
  ≥ 2 per day99 (43.2)109 (47.6)21 (9.2)
Vigorous physical activity0.460
 No393 (41.6)475 (50.3)77 (8.1)
 Yes85 (44.7)90 (47.4)15 (7.9)
Moderate physical activity0.456
 No300 (41.3)366 (50.3)61 (8.4)
 Yes171 (43.4)193 (49.0)30 (7.6)
Walk0.195
 No24 (57.1)12 (28.6)6 (14.3)
 Yes409 (41.6)495 (50.4)78 (7.9)
  • P value was obtained by Kruskal-Wallis test.