Table 1

Methodological quality of studies

Study IDTotal ‘yeses’ out of 20% of total score
75% or above
Paterno, 201851 Harvey, 201544 1890
Jarlenski, 201645 Stengel, 2014106 Kelly, 200946 1785
Gueta, 201750 Jessup, 200330 Akin, 199731 1680
Campbell, 201757 Kearney, 1995107 Meyer, 2011108 DeVoe, 200348 1575
50%–74%
Elms, 201849 Stone, 201532 Fleury-Steiner, 201133 Sullivan, 200534 Shalhoub-Kevorkian, 200535 Earner, 2007109 Stevens, 200536 1470
Bergstrom-Lynch, 2018110 Valentine, 2018111 Roberts, 2011112 Phillips, 2007113 Howell, 199937 White, 2016114 Davidov, 201256 Hathaway, 200238 1365
Leppo, 2012115 Sword, 200439 Fong, 201740 1260
Kruk, 201141 Dowd, 2002116
Roberts, 201058
1155
49% and under
Scott, 199642 945
Palmer, 199943 735