Table 4

Levels of evidence rating for the quality of the psychometric properties

LevelRating*Criteria†
Strong+++ or − − −Test‡ was evaluated in multiple studies of adequate risk of bias score or one study of very good risk of bias score (implying a low risk of bias).
Moderate++ or − − −Test was evaluated in multiple studies of doubtful risk of bias score or one study of adequate risk of bias score.
Limited+ or − − −Test was evaluated in one study of doubtful risk of bias score.
Conflicting±Test was evaluated in studies with contradictory findings.
Unknown?Test was evaluated in studies of inadequate risk of bias score or not investigated at all.
  • Adapted from Kroman et al.54

  • *Sufficient (+), indeterminate (?), or insufficient (-) rating.53

  • †Modified using the new 4-point scoring system of the updated COSMIN checklist.38

  • ‡A specific knee proprioception test.