Table 1

Search strategy for Medline

1(“Suffering”[tiab] OR “distress”[tiab]
2“Palliative care”[MeSH] OR “terminal care[MeSH]” OR “end of life care”[tiab] “terminally ill”[MeSH] OR “advanced illness”[tiab] OR “terminal illness”[tiab] OR “end of life”[tiab]
3(Instrument[tiab] OR instruments[tiab] OR measure [tiab] OR measures [tiab] OR questionnaire[tiab] OR questionnaires[tiab] OR scale[tiab] OR scales[tiab] OR tool[tiab] OR tools[tiab] OR survey [tiab] OR test [tiab]
4Instrumentation[sh] OR methods[sh] OR “Validation Studies”[pt] OR “Comparative Study”[pt] OR “psychometrics”[MeSH] OR psychometr*[tiab] OR clinimetr*[tw] OR clinometr*[tw] OR “outcome assessment [healthcare]”[MeSH] OR “outcome assessment”[tiab] OR “outcome measure*”[tw] OR “observer variation”[MeSH] OR “observer variation”[tiab] OR “Health Status Indicators”[Mesh] OR “reproducibility of results”[MeSH] OR reproducib*[tiab] OR “discriminant analysis”[MeSH] OR reliab*[tiab] OR unreliab*[tiab] OR valid*[tiab] OR coefficient[tiab] OR homogeneity[tiab] OR homogeneous[tiab] OR “internal consistency”[tiab] OR (cronbach*[tiab] AND (alpha[tiab] OR alphas[tiab])) OR (item[tiab] AND (correlation*[tiab] OR selection*[tiab] OR reduction*[tiab])) OR agreement[tiab] OR precision[tiab] OR imprecision[tiab] OR “precise values”[tiab] OR test-retest[tiab] OR (test[tiab] AND retest[tiab]) OR (reliab* [tiab] AND (test[tiab] OR retest[tiab])) OR stability[tiab] OR interrater[tiab] OR inter-rater[tiab] OR intrarater[tiab] OR intra-rater[tiab] OR intertester[tiab] OR inter-tester[tiab] OR intratester[tiab] OR intra-tester[tiab] OR interobserver[tiab] OR inter-observer[tiab] OR intraobserver[tiab] OR intraobserver[tiab] OR intertechnician[tiab] OR inter-technician[tiab] OR intratechnician[tiab] OR intra-technician[tiab] OR interexaminer[tiab] OR inter-examiner[tiab] OR intraexaminer[tiab] OR intra-examiner[tiab] OR interassay[tiab] OR inter-assay[tiab] OR intraassay[tiab] OR intra-assay[tiab] OR interindividual[tiab] OR inter-individual[tiab] OR intraindividual[tiab] OR intra-individual[tiab] OR interparticipant[tiab] OR inter-participant[tiab] OR intraparticipant[tiab] OR intra-participant[tiab] OR kappa[tiab] OR kappa’s[tiab] OR kappas[tiab] OR repeatab*[tiab] OR ((replicab*[tiab] OR repeated[tiab]) AND (measure[tiab] OR measures[tiab] OR findings[tiab] OR result[tiab] OR results[tiab] OR test[tiab] OR tests[tiab])) OR generaliza*[tiab] OR generalisa*[tiab] OR concordance[tiab] OR (intraclass[tiab] AND correlation*[tiab]) OR discriminative[tiab] OR “known group”[tiab] OR “factor analysis’[tiab] OR “factor analyses”[tiab] OR dimension*[tiab] OR subscale*[tiab] OR (multitrait[tiab] AND scaling[tiab] AND (analysis[tiab] OR analyses[tiab])) OR “item discriminant”[tiab] OR “interscale correlation*”[tiab] OR error[tiab] OR errors[tiab] OR “individual variability”[tiab] OR (variability[tiab] AND (analysis[tiab] OR values[tiab])) OR (uncertainty[tiab] AND (measurement[tiab] OR measuring[tiab])) OR “standard error of measurement”[tiab] OR sensitiv*[tiab] OR responsive*[tiab] OR ((minimal[tiab] OR minimally[tiab] OR clinical[tiab] OR clinically[tiab]) AND (important[tiab] OR significant[tiab] OR detectable[tiab]) AND (change[tiab] OR difference[tiab])) OR (small*[tiab] AND (real[tiab] OR detectable[tiab]) AND (change[tiab] OR difference[tiab])) OR “meaningful change” [tiab] OR “ceiling effect”[tiab] OR “floor effect”[tiab] OR “Item response model”[tiab] OR IRT[tiab] OR Rasch[tiab] OR “Differential item functioning”[tiab] OR DIF[tiab] OR “computer adaptive testing”[tiab] OR “item bank”[tiab] OR “cross-cultural equivalence”[tiab]
5#1 AND #2 AND #3 AND #4
6“Protocol”[Publication Type] OR “addresses”[Publication Type] OR “biography”[Publication Type] OR “case reports”[Publication Type] OR “comment”[Publication Type] OR “editorial”[Publication Type] OR “congresses” [Publication Type] OR “consensus development conference”[Publication Type] OR “consensus development conference”[Publication Type] OR “practice guideline”[Publication Type]) OR “suffering from”[tiab] OR “animals”[MeSH]
7#5 NOT #6
8FILTER: Language (English and Spanish)
9FILTER: Period (1980–2018)