Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients with hyperkalaemia (>5.0 mmol/L)

Patients with hyperkalaemia
Chronic kidney diseaseHeart failureDiabetes
Total17 747 (100%)5141 (100%)4183 (100%)
Female8576 (48.3%)2311 (45.0%)1635 (39.1%)
Age (years)
Median age (range)76 (66.4–83.2)79 (70.4–85.1)69 (60.0–78.4)
 <653923 (22.1%)781 (15.2%)1589 (38.0%)
 65–744461 (25.1%)1149 (22.3%)1158 (27.7%)
 75–846059 (34.1%)1919 (37.3%)1035 (24.7%)
 85+3304 (18.6%)1292 (25.1%)401 (9.6%)
eGFR level*
 eGFR ≥60102 (0.6%)559 (10.9%)1335 (31.9%)
 eGFR 45–595072 (28.6%)878 (17.1%)908 (21.7%)
 eGFR 30–445711 (32.2%)1459 (28.4%)906 (21.7%)
 eGFR 15–294665 (26.3%)1529 (29.7%)712 (17.0%)
 eGFR <151968 (11.1%)607 (11.8%)283 (6.8%)
 Dialysis229 (1.3%)109 (2.1%)38 (0.9%)
Qualifying event of hyperkalaemia
 5.0–5.413 788 (77.7%)3845 (74.8%)3440 (82.2%)
 5.5–5.92612 (14.7%)836 (16.3%)525 (12.6%)
 6.0–6.4730 (4.1%)259 (5.0%)122 (2.9%)
 6.5–6.9331 (1.9%)107 (2.1%)54 (1.3%)
 ≥7.0286 (1.6%)94 (1.8%)42 (1.0%)
Main risk factors
 Diabetes4779 (26.9%)1453 (28.3%)4183 (100%)
 CKD17 747 (100%)3478 (67.7%)2094 (50.1%)
 Heart failure3499 (19.7%)5141 (100%)735 (17.6%)
 Hypertension13 080 (73.7%)4422 (86.0%)3042 (72.7%)
Other comorbidities
 MI2756 (15.5%)1533 (29.8%)637 (15.2%)
 HF3183 (17.9%)0 (0.0%)683 (16.3%)
 PVD2294 (12.9%)857 (16.7%)466 (11.1%)
 CVD3257 (18.4%)1075 (20.9%)630 (15.1%)
 Any malignant disease4086 (23.0%)928 (18.1%)727 (17.4%)
 Afib or flutter3867 (21.8%)2151 (41.8%)828 (19.8%)
 VHD1698 (9.6%)1007 (19.6%)284 (6.8%)
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 04180 (23.6%)991 (19.3%)1454 (34.8%)
 13864 (21.8%)1159 (22.5%)928 (22.2%)
 23962 (22.3%)1053 (20.5%)738 (17.6%)
 ≥35741 (32.3%)1938 (37.7%)1063 (25.4%)
Medications
 ACEis7682 (43.3%)2802 (54.5%)2025 (48.4%)
 ARBs3762 (21.2%)977 (19.0%)954 (22.8%)
 Spironolactone4017 (22.6%)1934 (37.6%)891 (21.3%)
 Potassium supplements6010 (33.9%)3010 (58.5%)1214 (29.0%)
  • *mL/min/1.73 m2.

  • ACEis, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARBs, agiotensin II receptor blockers; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HF, heart failure; MI, myocardial infarction; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; VHD, valvular heart disease.