Table 3

Differences of cumulative cost in LTCI services in an 11-year follow-up period by social participation

nMeanOLS ‡§IPW with MI ¶††Mortality
Coef. (95% CI)Coef. (95% CI)
Hobby activities group
  Never283314.6ref.ref.30.8
  A few times a year2596.6−3.2† (−6.7 to 0.2)−3.5 (−8.1 to 1.2)28.0
  Once or twice a month52410.2−2.8† (−5.8 to 0.7)−2.2 (−5.6 to 1.2)21.7
  Once a week +9729.4−3.6** (−6.0 to −1.3)−3.5* (−6.2 to −0.8)19.5
Sports group or club
  Never371613.9ref.ref.29.1
  A few times a year919.3  2.5 (−4.9 to 9.9)  1.8 (−5.8 to 9.4)18.7
  Once or twice a month1254.8−3.3 (−7.6 to 9.4)−4.2 (−10.7 to 2.3)16.1
  Once a week +5725.2−4.9*** (−6.9 to −2.8)−6.1*** (−9.3 to −2.8)18.6
Volunteer group
  Never389912.7ref.ref.28.4
  A few times a year1944.8−4.1** (−7.1 to −1.0)−3.9 (−9.1 to 1.3)20.7
  Once or twice a month19310.0  1.9 (−2.9 to 6.7)  1.5 (−3.8 to 6.7)12.7
  Once a week +1225.9−0.7 (−4.5 to 3.1)−1.4 (−7.9 to 5.1)11.5
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<.001, †p<0.10. Unit: US$1000.

  • ‡Missing values in control variables were included as a dummy variable.

  • §The result was controlled by sex, age, disease and/or impairment, years of education, equivalent income, marital status, living situation, self-rated health at baseline.

  • ¶Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed using sex, age, disease and/or impairment, years of education, equivalent income, marital status, living situation, self-rated health at baseline (m=20).

  • ††The generalised propensity scores were calculated using multinominal regression analysis using all previously listed potential confounders: sex, age, disease and/or impairment, years of education, equivalent income, marital status, living situation, self-rated health.

  • IPW, inverse probability weighting; MI, multiple imputation; OLS, ordinal least squares.