Table 2

Gastrointestinal (GI) signs and symptoms in patients with GORD

GI symptomsGroup AGroup BAllOR* (95% CI)P value
(na=66)(nb=121)(n=187)
Heartburn/regurgitation
 Yes63115178 (95.2%)1.096 (0.265 to 4.531)0.9
 No3609 (4.8%)
Nausea/vomiting
 Yes48107155 (82.9%) 0.349 (0.160 to 0.759)0.006†
 No181432 (17.1%)
Abdominal pain/discomfort
 Yes4992141 (75.4%)0.909 (0.455 to 1.815)0.786
 No172946 (24.5%)
Abdominal distension
 Yes4062102 (54.5%)1.464 (0.796 to 2.692)0.219
 No265985 (45.4%)
Early satiety/loss  of appetite
 Yes4462106 (56.7%) 1.903 (1.020 to 3.551)0.042†
 No225981 (43.3%)
Dysphagia
 Yes324880 (42.8%)1.431 (0.782 to 2.620)0.244
 No3473107 (57.2%)
Haematemesis
 Yes274471 (38.0%)1.212 (0.655 to 2.240)0.54
 No3977116 (62.0%)
Melena
 Yes364682 (43.9%) 1.957 (1.065 to 3.593)0.029†
 No3075105 (56.1%)
  • Odds Ratios in bold exhibit corresponding GI symptoms as significantly associated with Chronic GORD. Group A, chronic/severe GORD with DE. Group B, mild GORD without DE.

  • *OR (of GI symptoms against GORD+DE as reference category).

  • †P<0.05 (χ2 test of proportion) was statistically significant.

  • DE, dental erosions; GORD, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.