Table 1

Demographic variables and baseline characteristics in patients with GORD

S. noDemographic variablesN (%)*
1Gender
 Male 109 (58.3)
 Female78 (41.7)
2Age category
 <19 years09 (4.8)
 20–30 years 34 (18.2)
 31–40 years26 (13.9)
 41–50 years 48 (25.7)
 51–60 years 42 (22.5)
 61–70 years19 (10.2)
 71–80 years09 (4.8)
3Race/ethnicity
 Sindhi15 (8.0)
 Balochi05 (2.7)
 Punjabi 102 (54.5)
 Pathan28 (15)
 Kashmiri06 (3.2)
 Urdu Speaking Mohajirs31 (16.6)
4Domicile
 Urban 119 (63.6)
 Rural68 (36.4)
5Socioeconomic status (SES)†
 Low 116 (62)
 Moderate66 (35.3)
 High05 (2.7)
6 Dietary pattern‡
 Healthy diet23 (12.3)
 Satisfactory diet80 (42.8)
 Unhealthy diet 84 (44.9)
7Addiction
 Smoking50 (26.7)
 Oral tobacco57 (30.5)
 Alcohol05 (2.7)
8Tea consumption
 Yes 136 (72.7)
 No51 (27.3)
9NSAIDs consumption
 Yes 86 (46.0)
 No101 (54.0)
10History of body ache/general body pain
 Yes 83 (44.0)
 No104 (56.0)
11Weight loss (from <5  kg to >20  kg)
 No45 (24.1)
 1–5 kg 72 (38.5)
 5–10 kg13 (7.0)
 10–15 kg 36 (19.3)
 15–20 kg15 (8.0)
 >20 kg06 (3.2)
12Comorbidities
 Hypertension 65 (34.8)
 Diabetes mellitus 43 (23)
 Hepatitis B08 (4.3)
 Hepatitis C 64 (34.2)
 Chronic liver disease 35 (18.7)
13Dental erosions (DE)
 Group A: GORD with DE66 (35.3)
 Group B: GORD without DE121 (64.7)
14GORD (alone) and (in combination with other GI illness)
 GORD alone 106 (56.7)
 GORD with additional upper-GI conditions81 (43.3)
 i. Gastritis 16 (19.8)
 ii. Portal gastropathy09 (11.2)
 iii. Peptic ulcer disease08 (10.2)
 iv. GORD oesophagitis04 (4.8)
 v. Hiatal hernia04 (4.3)
 vi. Others 40 (49.7)
  • *Items in bold highlight notable prevalence in each category.

  • †SES (categorised on the basis of monthly family income, number of family dependents and educational status).

  • ‡Dietary pattern (healthy diet refers to a balanced diet; satisfactory diet: being intermediary between healthy and unhealthy diet, explicitly relating to occasionally eating junk food, while diet relatively lacks in natural abrasives like fruits/vegetables, cereals, leafy vegetables and fibres; unhealthy diet refers to consuming high fatty/oily meals, frequent consumption of junk food/fast food and soft drinks, while completely devoid of natural abrasives).16

  • GI, gastrointestinal; GORD, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.