Table 3

Oral manifestations in patients with GORD

Oral manifestationsGroup AGroup BAllCOR (95% CI)P value*AOR (95% CI)P value†
(n=66)(n=121)(n=187)
1. Xerostomia
 Yes4742 89 (47.6%) 4.653 (2.426 to 8.923)<0.01*2.372 (1.047 to 5.373)0.038†
 No197998 (52.4%)11
2. Ulceration
 Yes6051 111 (59.4%) 13.725 (5.506 to 34.218)<0.01* 6.705 (2.481 to 18.122)<0.01†
 No67076 (40.6%)11
3. Gingivitis
 Yes472673 (39.0%) 9.038 (4.547 to 17.968)<0.01* 4.768 (2.123 to 10.706)<0.01†
 No1995114 (61.0%)11
4. Candidiasis
 Yes202040 (21.4%)2.196 (1.078 to 4.471)0.028*0.706 (0.267 to 1.868)0.483
 No46101147 (78.6%)11
5. Angular cheilitis
 Yes241236 (19.3%) 5.190 (2.382 to 11.312)<0.01*2.526 (1.038 to 6.148)0.041†
 No42109151 (80.7%)1
6. Atrophic glossitis
 Yes302757 (30.5%)2.901 (1.520 to 5.538)0.001*
 No3694130 (69.5%)1
7. Leukoplakia
 Yes2608 (4.3%)0.599 (0.117 to 3.055)0.533
 No64115179 (95.7%)1
8. Oral submucous fibrosis
 Yes5371 124 (66.3%) 2.871 (1.417 to 5.818)0.003*
 No135063 (33.7%)1
9. DMFT status
 <3246488 (47.06%)0.069
 3-102437 61 (32.62%)
 >101820 38 (20.32%)
  • Items in bold represent major findings (of note) in their respective field.

  • *P<0.05 (χ2 test) was considered statistically significant. Group A, chronic/severe GORD with DE. Group B, mild GORD without DE. DMFT (decayed, missed, filled teeth), pertaining to tooth decay and tooth loss. DMFT <3 (acceptable), DMFT 4–10 (average), DMFT >10 (poor).16 COR, crude OR (χ2/linear regression); AOR, adjusted OR (values from multivariate logistic regression analysis).

  • †ORs were computed for oral manifestations against a reference variable, ‘GORD with DE.’ Using backward selection (likelihood ratio) method, variables were entered in the multivariable analysis. The adjustment was made for atrophic glossitis, oral submucous fibrosis, leukoplakia and DMFT status. Area under ROC (AUROC) value: 0.855, was used as an assessment of the multivariable logistic regression model’s discriminative ability (to predict between the presence and absence of DE).

  • DE, dental erosions; GORD, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; ROC, receiver operating characteristic curve.