Table 4

Associations (mean difference or OR) between a number of maltreatments and cardiometabolic markers at 45y

Number of maltreatments
Per increase*
Mean difference (95% CI)†
 BMI (kg/m2)0.33(0.17 to 0.49)
 Waist circumference (cm)
  Males0.23 (−0.33 to 0.79)
  Females1.14(0.57 to 1.71)
 Blood pressure
  SBP (mmHg)−0.10 (−0.61 to 0.41)
  DBP (mmHg)0.18 (−0.17 to 0.53)
 Blood lipids
  Total cholesterol (mmol/L)0.02 (−0.02 to 0.06)
  HDL-c (mmol/L)
   Males−0.01 (−0.03 to 0.01)
   Females−0.04 (−0.06 to –0.02)
  LDL-c0.03 (0.01 to 0.07)
  Triglycerides‡ (%)2.2 (0.0 to 4.4)
 HbA1c‡ (%)0.8 (0.4 to 1.3)
OR (95% CI) for elevated levels§
 General obesity1.13 (1.05 to 1.21)
 Central obesity1.12 (1.05 to 1.20)
 Hypertension1.01 (0.94 to 1.09)
 HDL-c1.11(1.01 to 1.21)
 LDL-c1.05 (0.97 to 1.15)
 Triglycerides1.10(1.01 to 1.20)
 HbA1c1.16 (0.99 to 1.36)
 Metabolic syndrome1.10 (0.96 to 1.26)
  • NB: analyses are for genders combined except where p≤0.05 for gender*maltreatment interaction where analyses are for males and females separately. Estimates that reached significance with p<0.05 were bold-faced.

  • See also online supplementary table S3.

  • *Mean difference or OR estimated from model adjusted for gender, factors affecting measurement (for BP: measured room temperature; for lipids and HBA1c: examination month, time of blood collection, postal delay of blood sample and time since last meal and for females: oral contraception and HRT), family history of diabetes (for HbA1c, diabetes), and early-life factors, including birth weight for gestational age, social class at birth, housing tenure and crowding at 7y.

  • †All cardiometabolic markers (continuous measures) were adjusted for medication. For binary outcomes (hypertension, dyslipidemia or T2 diabetes), those on medication were in risk groups.

  • ‡Log transformed and converted to per cent (NB: for HbA1c the parameters are per cent of the units [%]).

  • §Details of risk groups in table 1.