Table 2

Associations (mean difference or OR) between childhood maltreatment and adult cardiometabolic markers unadjusted and adjusted for early-life factors.

NeglectPhysical abuseSexual abusePsychological abuse
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
Mean difference (95% CI)*
 BMI (kg/m2)0.87 (0.59 to 1.15)0.53 (0.23 to 0.83)0.83 (0.39 to 1.27)0.72 (0.28 to 1.16)0.34 (–0.50 to 1.18)0.14 (–0.70 to 0.97)0.36 (0.01 to 0.71)0.28 (–0.07 to 0.63)
 Waist circumference (cm)1.88 (1.19 to 2.57)1.23 (0.51 to 1.96)1.44 (0.38 to 2.50)1.29 (0.23 to 2.35)0.15 (–1.89 to 2.19)−0.16 (–2.19 to 1.88)0.89 (0.05 to 1.73)0.74 (–0.10 to 1.58)
Blood pressure
 SBP (mmHg)1.40 (0.51 to 2.29)0.80 (–0.14 to 1.73)−0.46 (–1.83 to 0.91)−0.83 (–2.20 to 0.54)−2.90 (–5.56 to –0.24)†−3.50 (–6.16 to –0.84)†−0.28 (–1.38 to 0.81)−0.45 (–1.54 to 0.65)
 DBP (mmHg)0.99(0.38 to 1.59)0.58 (–0.06 to 1.22)0.17 (–0.78 to 1.12)−0.08 (–1.03 to 0.87)−2.02 (–3.84 to –0.20)†−2.45 (–4.27 to –0.63)†0.54 (–0.21 to 1.30)0.43 (–0.32 to 1.19)
Blood lipids
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)0.06 (–0.01 to 0.13)0.04 (–0.03 to 0.12)0.08 (–0.03 to 0.18)0.07 (–0.04 to 0.17)0.16 (–0.06 to 0.38)0.14 (–0.08 to 0.36)−0.02 (–0.10 to 0.07)−0.02 (–0.11 to 0.07)
 HDL-c (mmol/L)−0.07 (–0.14 to 0.01)−0.05 (–0.12 to 0.02)−0.05 (–0.07 to –0.02)−0.04 (–0.07 to –0.01)
  Males−0.03 (–0.06 to 0)−0.01 (–0.04 to 0.02)0.00 (–0.05 to 0.05)0.00 (–0.05 to 0.05)
  Females−0.08 (–0.12 to –0.05)−0.05 (–0.08 to –0.01)−0.08 (–0.14 to –0.02)−0.06 (–0.12 to –0.01)
 LDL-c0.06 (0.01 to 0.12)0.05 (–0.02 to 0.11)0.07 (–0.02 to 0.17)0.06 (–0.03 to 0.16)0.19 (0 to 0.38)0.17 (–0.02 to 0.36)0.01 (–0.07 to 0.08)0 (–0.08 to 0.08)
 Triglycerides‡ (%)7.7 (4.3 to 11.1)3.9 (0.3 to 7.5)5.5 (–0.1 to 1.1)3.6 (–2.0 to 9.2)4.5 (–6.5 to 15.5)1.7 (–9.1 to 12.5)2.6 (–1.8 to 7.0)1.7 (–2.7 to 6.1)
 HbA1c‡ (%)1.7 (0.9 to 2.5)1.2 (0.4 to 2.0)2.7 (0.3 to 5.1)2.4 (0.0 to 4.8)0.6 (–0.4 to 1.6)0.5 (–0.5 to 2.0)
  Males2.8 (1.0 to 4.6)2.5 (0.7 to 4.3)
  Females0.8 (–0.8 to 2.4)0.5 (–1.1 to 2.1)
OR (95% CI) for elevated levels§
 General obesity1.32 (1.17 to 1.49)1.16 (1.02 to 1.32)1.42 (1.18 to 1.71)1.36 (1.13 to 1.64)1.20 (0.84 to 1.73)1.12 (0.77 to 1.61)1.17(1.00 to 1.36)1.13 (0.97 to 1.32)
 Central obesity1.27 (1.13 to 1.43)1.15 (1.02 to 1.30)1.41 (1.19 to 1.68)1.38 (1.16 to 1.65)1.01 (0.72 to 1.42)0.96 (0.68 to 1.36)1.13 (0.98 to 1.30)1.11 (0.96 to 1.27)
 Hypertension1.21 (1.07 to 1.37)1.12 (0.98 to 1.27)1.00 (0.81 to 1.22)0.95 (0.77 to 1.17)0.46 (0.26 to 0.80)0.43 (0.24 to 0.74)1.02 (0.86 to 1.20)1.00 (0.85 to 1.18)
 HDL-c1.36 (1.16 to 1.59)1.15 (0.98 to 1.36)1.29 (1.01 to 1.65)1.20 (0.94 to 1.54)1.43 (0.93 to 2.21)1.29 (0.83 to 2.01)1.12 (0.91 to 1.37)1.08 (0.88 to 1.32)
 LDL-c1.09 (0.94 to 1.25)1.04 (0.89 to 1.21)1.27 (1.02 to 1.59)1.25 (1.00 to 1.56)1.46 (0.92 to 2.31)1.41 (0.89 to 2.23)1.00 (0.83 to 1.21)0.99 (0.82 to 1.19)
 Triglycerides1.19 (1.04 to 1.36)1.08 (0.93 to 1.24)1.26 (1.02 to 1.57)1.20 (0.97 to 1.49)1.30 (0.83 to 2.03)1.20 (0.77 to 1.88)1.23 (1.04 to 1.47)1.21 (1.02 to 1.44)
 HbA1c1.43 (1.11 to 1.84)1.24 (0.95 to 1.61)1.38 (0.91 to 2.11)1.27 (0.83 to 1.94)1.53 (0.68 to 3.45)1.36 (0.60 to 3.09)1.20 (0.84 to 1.73)1.16 (0.81 to 1.67)
 Metabolic syndrome1.22 (0.99 to 1.50)1.08 (0.89 to 1.32)1.20 (0.86 to 1.69)1.14 (0.81 to 1.60)1.48 (0.48 to 4.53)1.37 (0.45 to 4.20)1.18 (0.93 to 1.51)1.16 (0.91 to 1.47)
  • Genders combined except when gender*maltreatment interaction p≤0.05. Estimates that reached significance with p<0.05 were bold-faced.

  • Model 1 includes gender and factors affecting measurement (for BP: measured room temperature; for lipids and HBA1c: month of examination, time of blood collection, postal delay of blood sample and self-reported time since last meal and for females: oral contraception and HRT). For metabolic syndrome: all factors included.

  • Model 2: Model 1 factors, self-reported family history of diabetes (for HbA1c) and early-life factors (birth weight for gestational age, social class at birth, housing tenure and crowding at 7y).

  • *All cardiometabolic markers (continuous measures) were adjusted for medication. For binary outcomes (hypertension, dyslipidemia or T2 diabetes), those on medication were in risk groups.

  • †Included interaction term for gender (not separated by gender because of small Ns).

  • ‡Log transformed and converted to per cent (NB: for HbA1c and triglycerides parameters are per cent of units [%]).

  • §Details of risk groups in table 1.