Table 3

Within-person effect of temporal fluctuations in neck-shoulder pain intensity (scale 0–10) on sick leave (days/month) and work ability (scale 0–10) over 1 year

GEE modelsNSick leaveWork ability
P valueRR95% CIP valueOR95% CI
LowerUpperLowerUpper
Model 12480.0081.121.031.210.0051.111.031.19
Model 22420.0081.121.031.210.0091.111.031.19
Model 32310.0111.111.021.210.0021.131.041.21
  • RR estimates, indicating the relative increase in the number of days on sick leave per month, were obtained using GEE with a Poisson distribution for days on sick-leave (measured at 4-week intervals). ORs indicating the likelihood of a 1-unit reduction in work ability, were obtained using GEE with a multinomial distribution for work ability (measured at 12-week intervals). Estimates indicate the within-person effect of change in pain intensity on change in sick leave and work ability per month.

  • Model 1: adjusted for the person mean pain intensity across time points.

  • Model 2: additionally, adjusted for age, gender and body mass index.

  • Model 3: additionally adjusted for occupational sector and physical work load.

  • GEE, generalised estimation equation; RR, relative risk.