Table 2

Table of outcomes

OutcomeAuthorsMeasureInterventionControlEstimated effect (and p value if recorded)
Time point
Mean scores (SD) OR
Number of events*
DisturbanceCullen et al 18 Mean no. of leave Post treat 0.33 (0.82)Post treat 0.83 (2.25)Mean diff: −0.5, p=0.02
Violations12 months post 0.52 (0.99)12 months post 0.60 (1.19)Mean diff: −0.08, p=0.74
MacInnes et al 23 6 months post.6 months post
No. of absconsions27Diff: −5
No. of physical restraints2235Diff: −13
Quality of lifeAho-Mustonen et al 15 Sintonen’s 15D health-related quality of lifePost treat 0.9 (0.08)Post treat 0.91 (0.06)Mean diff: −0.,1 p=0.5
3 months post 0.9 (0.06)3 months post 0.94 (0.08)Mean diff: −0.2, p=0.09
MacInnes et al 23 Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of LifePost treat 4.5 (0.4)Post treat 4.3 (0.1)Mean diff: 0.2
6 months post 4.7 (0.2)6 Months post 4.3 (0.3)Mean diff: 0.4
Walker et al 27 Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale Revision 4Post treat 30.7 (19.1)Post treat 30.6 (16.1)Mean diff: 0.1, p=0.20
6 months post 29 (16.6)6 months post
Not reported
RecoveryAho-Mustonen et al 15 Scale to assessPost treat 4.1 (0.9)Post treat 4.7 (1.0)Mean diff: −0.6P=0.67
Unawareness of mental disorder3 months post 3.8 (1.1)3 months post 4.8 (0.8)Mean diff: 1.0 p=0.09
MacInnes et al 23 Process of recovery questionnairePost treatPost treat
Interpersonal66.4 (2.0)64.1 (2.0)Mean diff: 2.3
Intrapersonal18.9 (0.4)19.0 (0.7)Mean diff: −0.1
6 months post6 months post
Interpersonal65.6 (1.0)63.9 (1.1)Mean diff: 1.7
Intrapersonal18.9 (0.7)19.7 (0.9)Mean diff: −0.8
Walker et al 27 Schedule for assessment of insightPost treatPost treatMean diff: 1.5, p=0.13
12.2 (5.4)10.7 (5.1)
6 months post 13.5 (4.5)6 months post
Not reported
SatisfactionMacInnes et al 23 Forensic Satisfaction ScalePost treat 3.3 (0.2)Post treat 3.3 (0.3)Mean diff: 0
6 months post 3.3. (0.1)6 months post 3.3. (0.1)Mean diff: 0
SeclusionMacInnes et al 23 No. of seclusions6 months post6 months postDiff: −28
937
SymptomsAho-Mustonen et al 15 Beck Depression Inventory-IIPost treat 8.1 (5.7)Post treat 11.2 (4.5)Mean diff: −3.1, p=0.46.
3 months post 6.4 (6.2)3 months post 13.1 (7.9)Mean diff: −6.7, p=0.30.
Aho-Mustonen et al 15 Brief Psychiatric Rating ScalePost treat 27.9 (7.5)Post treat 28.1 (5.4)Mean diff: −0.2, p=0.57.
3 months post 26.5 (8.0)3 months post 28.5 (4.6)Mean diff: −2.0, p=0.76.
Aho-Mustonen et al 15 Rosenberg Self-Esteem ScalePost treat 29.7 (3.6)Post treat 29.3 (2.9)Mean diff: 0.4, p=0.03.
3 months post 29.4 (2.8)3 months post 29.5 (4.3)Mean diff: −0.1, p=0.06.
Aho-Mustonen et al 15 Nurses’ Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation-30Post treat 100.6 (3.7)Post treat 101 (4.3)Mean diff: −0.4, p=0.77.
3 months post 99.2 (3.8)3 months post 100.8 (3.9)Mean diff: 1.6, p=0.31.
Doyle et al 19 Brief Psychiatric Rating ScaleNo raw scores reported24 months post*
0.29, p=0.74
Haddock et al 21 Global Assessment of FunctioningPost treat 41.86 (15.63)Post Treat 33.34 (14.64)Mean diff: 8.52
6 months post 42.94 (19.30)6 months post 40.93 (22.06)Mean diff::2.01
Haddock et al 21 Positive and Negative Syndrome ScalePost treatPost treat
Positive14.79 (5.95)11.66 (3.67)Mean diff: 3.13
Negative15.75 (5.70)13.50 (5.59)Mean diff: 2.25
General55.24 (12.47)58.68 (16.14)Mean diff: −3.44
6 months post6 months post
Positive15.03 (6.97)12.06 (4.91)Mean diff: 2.97
Negative15.88 (5.66)14.31 (6.08)Mean diff: 1.57
General53.97 (20.27)57.73 (16.31)Mean diff: −3.76
Haddock et al 21 Psychotic Symptom Rating ScalesPost treatPost treat
Auditory9.74 (13.92)11.38 (15.13)Mean diff: −1.64
Delusions4.90 (6.55)11.04 (6.70)Mean diff: −6.14
6 months post6 months post
Auditory9.36 (12.72)10.83 (16.63)Mean diff: −1.47
Delusions7.60 (8.25)8.38 (8.03)Mean diff: −0.78
Walker et al 27 Positive and Negative Syndrome ScalePost treatPost treat
Positive12.8 (3.9)14.3 (6.2)Mean diff: −1.5
Negative15.2 (6.2)17.9 (6.9)Mean diff: −2.7
General27.2 (7.2)30.4 (9.8)Mean diff: −3.2
6 months post6 months post
Positive12.5 (7.2)Not reported
Negative14.1 (6.3)Not reported
General27.8 (10.8)Not reported
Walker et al 27 Calgary Depression Scale for SchizophreniaPost treat 1.8 (4.4)Post treat 2 (3.46)Mean diff: −0.2, p=0.32
6 months post 1.8 (3.6)6 months post
Not reported
Therapeutic relationshipMacInnes et al 23 Helping Alliance ScalePost treat 6.6 (0.6)Post treat 6.3 (0.5)Mean diff: 0.3
6 months post 7.0 (0.8)6 months post 6.7 (0.2)Mean diff: 0.3
Violence/riskBernstein et al 16 Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20No raw scores recordedHigher scores in control group. No statistically significant p values reported.
Cullen et al 18 Mean acts of aggression per patientPost treatPost treat
Verbal3.95 (8.42)3.53 (6.44)Mean diff: 0.42, p=0.01
Physical0.55 (1.38)0.68 (1.33)Mean diff: −0.13, p=0.11
1 year post1 year post
Verbal7.33 (10.83)8.23 (15.71)Mean diff: −0.9, p=0.02
Physical0.90 (1.96)0.88 (2.00)Mean diff: 0.02, p=0.65
Cullen et al 18 Novaco Anger ScalePost treatPost treat
Cognitive28.5 (5.0)27.3 (4.9)Mean diff: 1.2
Arousal24.9 (5.2)25.5 (5.4)Mean diff: −0.6
Behavioural23.8 (5.3)25.6 (5.7)Mean diff: −1.8
1 year post1 year post
Cognitive28.6 (5.4)27.7 (4.9)Mean diff: 0.9
Arousal27.5 (6.3)24.7 (5.3)Mean diff: 0.8
Behavioural25.1 (5.4)24.2 (4.8)Mean diff: 0.9
Doyle et al 19 Mean acts of physical, verbal or property aggressionPost treatPost treat
2.321.32Mean diff: 1.0
Doyle et al 19 Novaco Anger Scale24 months post*
Cognitive−0.57, p=0.47
ArousalNo raw scores reported−0.92, p=0.35
Behavioural0.44, p=0.65
Total0.27, p=0.91
Doyle et al 19 Historical, Clinical, Risk Management 2024 months post*
RiskNo raw scores reported0.12, p=0.73
Clinical−0.19, p=0.69
Doyle et al 19 Violence riskNo raw scores reported24 months post*
Scale total−3.43, p=0.04
Haddock et al 11 No. of incidents of aggressionPost treatPost treat
Verbal31103Diff: −72, p=0.15
Physical246Diff: −44, p=0.039
6 months post6 months post
Verbal3480Diff: −46, p=0.765
Physical522Diff: −17, p=0.594
Haddock et al 21 Ward Anger Rating Scale BPost treat 4.03 (4.19)Post treat 6.36 (6.79)Mean diff: −2.33
6 months post 4.2 (4.65)6 months post 6.3 (8.00)Mean diff: −2.1
Haddock et al 21 Novaco Anger ScalePost treat 88.13 (16.88)Post treat 82.36 (20.12)Mean diff: 5.77
6 months post6 months postMean diff: 1.1
85.51 (17.33)84.41 (22.62)
Haddock et al 21 Novaco Provocation InventoryPost treat 59.75 (18.51)Post treat 55.63 (17.51)Mean diff: 4.12
6 months post 61.65 (13.15)6 months post 58.32 (18.01)Mean diff: 3.33
Haddock et al 21 Historical, Clinical, Risk Management 20Post treatPost treat
RiskNot reportedNot reported
ClinicalNot reportedNot reported
6 months post6 months post
Risk4.00 (3.96)4.23 (2.83)Mean diff: −0.23
Clinical3.57 (2.54)4.03 (2.64)Mean diff: −0.46
Hakvoort et al 22 Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale6 months post 2.566 months post 2.4Mean diff: 0.16, p=0.34
Hakvoort et al 22 Atascadero Skills Profiles Scale 46 months post 2.516 months post 2.01Mean diff: 0.5, p=0.86
MacInnes et al 23 No. of violent incidents6 months post 506 months post 96Mean diff: −46
Tomlinson and Hoaken25 Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire -SFPost treatPost treat
Overall2.05 (0.47)2.14 (0.88)Mean diff: −0.09
Physical2.13 (0.90)2.87 (1.87)Mean diff: −0.74
Verbal2.07 (0.431.67 (0.47)Mean diff: 0.4
Hostility2.20 (0.96)2.26 (0.95)Mean diff: −0.06
Anger1.80 (0.56)2.26 (0.89)Mean diff: −0.46
Tomlinson and Hoaken25 Impulsive/Premeditated Aggression ScalePost treatPost treat
Overall2.23 (0.21)2.94 (0.59)Mean diff: −0.71
Premediated aggression2.00 (0.27)2.75 (0.91)Mean diff: −0.75
Impulsive aggression2.40 (0.20)3.09 (0.57)Mean diff: −0.89
Walker et al 27 Behaviour Status IndexPost treat 572 (99.1)Post treat 535.7 (96.2)Mean diff: 34.3, p=0.41
6 months post 559 (86.3)6 months post
Not reported
Ward environmentMacInnes et al 23 Essen Climate Evaluation SchemaPost treatPost treat
Patient cohesion8.8 (1.0)9.3 (0.7)Mean diff: −0.5
Experienced safety15.4 (1.2)16.3 (2.4)Mean diff: −0.9
Therapeutic hold10.7 (1.5)11.6 (1.2)Mean diff: −0.9
6 months post6 months post
Pt cohesion10.6 (0.2)9.3 (0.7)Mean diff: 1.3
Experienced safety16.3 (2.3)15.4 (2.7)Mean diff: 0.9
Therapeutic hold11.7 (1.0)12.2 (0.5)Mean diff: −0.5
  • Notes: Aho-Mustonen et al.15 The p values relate to the differences in mean change scores from baseline at post-treatment and 3-month follow-up on outcome measures between the groups.

  • *A positive estimate indicates that the mean effect size for that variable is higher in the control group. A negative estimate (−) means that it is lower.