Table 3

Paired samples t-tests across the total sample and the per cent concerning subsample

VariableBaseline†1-month follow-up6-month follow-up12-month follow-up
MeanMeanBaseline to 1 monthMeanBaseline to 6 monthsMeanBaseline to 12 months
SDSDTSDTSDT
(N)(N)S(95% CI)(N)(95% CI)(N)(95% CI)
Cohen’s d
Cohen’s d‡Cohen’s d
Emotional exhaustion§Total sample50.2943.424.20***47.014.42***45.852.25*
27.1 27.77 (3.63 to 10.11) 29.65 (5.37 to 14.10) 28.89 (0.76 to 10.47)
−116−1160.25−1110.34−1080.2
Concerning group at baseline¶70.9460.394.50***60.934.59***58.663.64**
14.08 22.51 (5.86 to 15.24) 25.08 (7.71 to 19.57) 25.85 (5.65 to 19.41)
−64−640.56−700.67−630.6
Depression symptoms††Total sample8.176.15.32***6.444.63***6.283.92***
5.55 4.5 (4.30 to 2.85) 5 (1.66 to 4.15) 4.85 (1.06 to 3.23)
−103−1030.41−940.52−960.42
Concerning group at baseline14.039.676.08***8.338.21*** 8.51 5.50***
4.04 4.7 (2.91 to 5.81) 4.18 (5.18 to 8.57)5.52(3.58 to 7.79)
−39−390.99−391.57−351.15
Subjective happiness‡‡Total sample5.285.59−5.00***5.33−4.01***5.57−4.24***
1 0.96 (0.19 to 0.44) 1.08 (0.15 to 0.43) 1.12 (0.17 to 0. 47)
−127−127−0.32−119−0.26−121−0.29
Concerning group at baseline4.034.76−6.23***4.47−6.32***4.55−3.77**
0.61 0.86 (0.49 to 0. 96) 0.91 (0.45 to 0. 87) 1.21 (0.28 to 0. 93)
−40−40−0.97−48−0.81−38−0.6
Work–life balance§§Total sample2.161.963.85***2.072.79***2.071.51
0.65 0.62 (0.10 to 0.30) 0.65 (0.04 to 0.26) 0.58 (−0.03 to 0. 22)
−115−1150.31−1100.24−1080.16
Concerning group at baseline2.672.245.76***2.324.17***2.34.04***
0.42 0.61 (0.28 to 0. 57) 0.64 (0.16 to 0.46) 0.56 (0.19 to 0.58)
−60−600.81−640.55−530.73
  • *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001.

  • †Means and SDs provided in the baseline column are those used in paired t-test analyses for 1-month follow-up. Baseline values in the 6 and 12-month follow-up analyses can be found in the online supplementary appendix.

  • ‡Cohen’s d effect sizes for correlated samples were computed with the means, SD and N, of participants with data available for the given assessment point.

  • §Emotional exhaustion was assessed with a 5-item derivative of the emotion exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory.

  • ¶The following cut-offs were used for the per cent concerning subgroups: emotional exhaustion scores ≥50; depression scores ≥10; problems with work–life balance scores >2; subjective happiness scores <5.

  • ††Depression symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.

  • ‡‡Subjective Happiness Scale was assessed with Lyubomirsky and Lepper’s subjective happiness scale.

  • §§Work–life balance was assessed with the work–life climate scale. Higher scores reflect higher levels of each construct, with the exception of work–life balance, in which case lower numbers reflect healthier work–life balance.