Table 3

Type of intervention content and number of interventions effective for each outcome (n=9 studies)

PsychoeducationCBTSFTSFBTDBT
BetterWorseBetterWorseBetterWorseBetterWorseBetterWorse
Disturbancen/an/a2 (1)0n/an/a20n/an/a
Quality of life03n/an/an/an/a20n/an/a
Recovery21n/an/an/an/a22n/an/a
Therapeutic relationshipn/an/an/an/an/an/a20n/an/a
Satisfactionn/an/an/an/an/an/a00n/an/a
Seclusionn/an/an/an/an/an/a10n/an/a
Symptoms11 (1)18410n/an/an/an/a
Ward environmentn/an/an/an/an/an/a24 (1)n/an/a
Violence/risk1013 (2)11 (1)35 (1)1071
  • The values in parentheses record the number of statistically signficant differences.

  • CBT, cognitive–behavioural therapy; DBT, dialectical behaviour therapy; n/a, not applicable as no comparison undertaken; SFBT, solution-focused brief therapy; SFT, schema-focused therapy.