Table 3

HRs* for cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders, mortality, sick leave, and disability pension among Western and non-Western migrants compared with native Swedes

nCrude HRModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
HR (95% CI)
Cardiovascular
 1991–1996
  Sweden941311111
  Western340.43 (0.33 to 0.57)0.80 (0.61 to 1.05)0.80 (0.61 to 1.07)0.90 (0.63 to 1.27)0.85 (0.54 to 1.32)
  Non-Western3310.84 (0.77 to 0.92)1.42 (1.29 to 1.55)1.36 (1.24 to 1.5)1.23 (1.08 to 1.41)1.06 (0.90 to 1.26)
 1997–2002
  Sweden19 23311111
  Western470.39 (0.31 to 0.50)0.70 (0.55 to 0.88)0.70 (0.55 to 0.89)0.72 (0.54 to 0.96)0.61 (0.42 to 0.90)
  Non-Western6550.90 (0.84 to 0.96)1.43 (1.34 to 1.53)1.38 (1.29 to 1.48)1.16 (1.06 to 1.28)0.95 (0.84 to 1.08)
 2003–2008
  Sweden28 85811111
  Western870.57 (0.48 to 0.68)0.88 (0.74 to 1.05)0.87 (0.73 to 1.04)0.97 (0.79 to 1.19)1.00 (0.78 to 1.29)
  Non-Western11321.08 (1.03 to 1.14)1.54 (1.46 to 1.61)1.46 (1.39 to 1.54)1.31 (1.22 to 1.41)1.16 (1.06 to 1.28)
Psychiatric
 1991–1996
  Sweden719711111
  Western460.74 (0.59 to 0.94)0.78 (0.62 to 0.98)0.77 (0.60 to 0.98)0.97 (0.73 to 1.30)0.95 (0.66 to 1.36)
  Non-Western6332.10 (1.97 to 2.24)2.23 (2.09 to 2.38)2.04 (1.90 to 2.20)1.80 (1.63 to 2.00)1.36 (1.19 to 1.56)
 1997–2002
  Sweden11 39311111
  Western731.02 (0.84 to 1.23)1.04 (0.86 to 1.26)1.02 (0.84 to 1.23)1.00 (0.79 to 1.28)0.76 (0.55 to 1.07)
  Non-Western6911.59 (1.50 to 1.70)1.65 (1.55 to 1.76)1.52 (1.42 to 1.63)1.37 (1.25 to 1.51)0.99 (0.88 to 1.12)
 2003–2008
  Sweden11 16911111
  Western621.07 (0.87 to 1.32)1.06 (0.86 to 1.3)1.08 (0.87 to 1.33)1.05 (0.82 to 1.36)0.97 (0.70 to 1.34)
  Non-Western7371.80 (1.69 to 1.91)1.80 (1.69 to 1.91)1.70 (1.59 to 1.81)1.53 (1.39 to 1.68)1.14 (1.02 to 1.29)
Mortality
 1991–1996
  Sweden963711111
  Western560.68 (0.55 to 0.85)0.90 (0.73 to 1.11)0.62 (0.49 to 0.79)1.04 (0.79 to 1.38)0.83 (0.58 to 1.20)
  Non-Western3000.74 (0.68 to 0.82)0.92 (0.84 to 1.01)0.71 (0.64 to 0.79)0.80 (0.69 to 0.92)0.57 (0.48 to 0.68)
 1997–2002
  Sweden14 12811111
  Western610.70 (0.57 to 0.86)1.02 (0.83 to 1.26)0.76 (0.61 to 0.94)1.20 (0.94 to 1.54)0.98 (0.72 to 1.33)
  Non-Western3140.59 (0.53 to 0.64)0.79 (0.73 to 0.87)0.61 (0.55 to 0.68)0.76 (0.67 to 0.86)0.48 (0.40 to 0.56)
 2003–2008
  Sweden21 64311111
  Western610.56 (0.46 to 0.69)0.83 (0.67 to 1.01)0.66 (0.54 to 0.82)0.90 (0.71 to 1.15)0.81 (0.59 to 1.10)
  Non-Western4400.58 (0.53 to 0.62)0.79 (0.73 to 0.85)0.62 (0.57 to 0.67)0.74 (0.66 to 0.82)0.53 (0.46 to 0.60)
Sick leave**
 1993–1996
  Sweden152 48311111
  Western12540.69 (0.66 to 0.73)0.75 (0.71 to 0.79)0.81 (0.77 to 0.86)0.99 (0.93 to 1.05)0.93 (0.86 to 1.00)
  Non-Western13 2711.11 (1.09 to 1.13)1.21 (1.19 to 1.24)1.19 (1.17 to 1.22)1.44 (1.41 to 1.48)1.31 (1.28 to 1.35)
 1997–2002
  Sweden265 49711111
  Western12540.74 (0.71 to 0.78)0.80 (0.77 to 0.84)0.85 (0.81 to 0.89)0.91 (0.87 to 0.96)0.84 (0.78 to 0.90)
  Non-Western13 2711.35 (1.33 to 1.37)1.50 (1.48 to 1.52)1.47 (1.45 to 1.49)1.50 (1.47 to 1.53)1.41 (1.38 to 1.45)
 2003–2008
  Sweden264 71211111
  Western11620.81 (0.78 to 0.85)0.87 (0.83 to 0.91)0.90 (0.86 to 0.95)0.93 (0.88 to 0.98)0.97 (0.89 to 1.05)
  Non-Western12 8761.49 (1.47 to 1.51)1.65 (1.63 to 1.68)1.61 (1.58 to 1.63)1.49 (1.47 to 1.52)1.48 (1.43 to 1.52)
Disability pension
 1991–1996
  Sweden61 25011111
  Western1320.23 (0.20 to 0.27)0.32 (0.28 to 0.37)0.11 (0.10 to 0.13)0.61 (0.51 to 0.73)0.56 (0.45 to 0.70)
  Non-Western16940.64 (0.62 to 0.67)0.88 (0.85 to 0.91)0.40 (0.38 to 0.42)1.37 (1.30 to 1.45)1.10 (1.03 to 1.18)
 1997–2002
  Sweden53 89711111
  Western2300.70 (0.63 to 0.78)0.94 (0.85 to 1.04)0.96 (0.87 to 1.07)1.10 (0.98 to 1.25)0.75 (0.65 to 0.88)
  Non-Western41932.08 (2.03 to 2.13)2.81 (2.74 to 2.89)2.60 (2.53 to 2.67)2.27 (2.18 to 2.36)1.30 (1.24 to 1.36)
 2003–2008
  Sweden82 64011111
  Western3490.81 (0.74 to 0.88)1.01 (0.93 to 1.10)1.03 (0.95 to 1.13)1.01 (0.91 to 1.12)0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)
  Non-Western55342.00 (1.96 to 2.04)2.60 (2.54 to 2.66)2.44 (2.38 to 2.50)2.03 (1.97 to 2.10)1.61 (1.54 to 1.69)
  • *Data for sick leave is available 1993-2008

  • Model 1: adjusted for sex and age.

  • Model 2: adjusted for sex, age and educational level.

  • Model 3: adjusted for sex, age, educational level and occupation (blue-collar or white-collar).

  • Model 4: adjusted for sex, age, educational level, occupation (blue-collar or white-collar) and labour market attachment (economic active/inactive during the follow-up).