Table 1

Community-level social determinants of health metrics

Community-level SDH categoryMetrics
Built environment
  • Fast food restaurants per 100 000 population

Race/ethnic composition
  • Count and per cent by race

  • Residential segregation (dissimilarity, exposure)

Neighbourhood resources
  • Modified retail food environment index (no of healthy food stores divided by all food stores)

  • Per cent of people in a county living more than 1 mile from a supermarket or large grocery store if in an urban area, or more than 10 miles if in a rural area

  • Percentage of population living within ½ mile of a park

  • Recreation facilities per 100 000 population

  • Urban Classification Code

Neighbourhood socioeconomic composition
  • Per cent of population with bachelor’s degree or higher

  • Median household income

  • Per cent below 100% of federal poverty level (FPL); per cent below 200% of FPL

  • Unemployment rate

Social deprivation index36
  • Composite measure of social deprivation validated to be more strongly associated with poor access to healthcare and poor health outcomes than a measure of poverty alone