Table 1

Sociodemographic and work-related characteristics of study population in teachers working in rural and urban areas (n=597)

n missingTotal
n=597
Urban
n=250
Rural
n=347
P value*
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Age≤29 years5109 (18.5)29 (11.8)80 (23.2)<0.01*
30–39 years196 (33.2)57 (23.3)139 (40.3)
40–49 years139 (23.6)66 (26.9)73 (21.2)
≥50 years146 (24.7)93 (38.0)53 (15.4)
GenderFemale4430 (72.9)192 (78.4)238 (69.0)0.03*
Teaching levelSecondary6225 (37.7)70 (28.0)155 (44.7)<0.01*
Primary and secondary82 (13.7)41 (16.4)41 (11.8)
Primary290 (48.6)139 (55.6)151 (43.5)
Extracurricular activities†Hours/week
(Md; range)‡
3310.00; 1–9610.00; 1–7210.00; 1–960.34§
Monthly incomeHigh (>US$476)10167 (28.0)84 (33.6)82 (23.6)<0.01*
Medium (US$239–US$476)306 (51.2)110 (44.0)196 (56.5)
Low (<US$238)124 (20.8)56 (22.4)69 (19.9)
Work postureStanding or walking (always)19423 (70.9)192 (76.8)231 (66.6)0.01*
ERI-effortMd; range‡7.00; 3–127.00; 3–118.00; 3–12<0.01§
ERI-rewardMd; range‡19.00; 10–2720.00; 12–2718.00; 10–260.02§
 Job promotionMd; range‡7.50; 3–127.00; 3.0–11.08.00; 3.0–12.00.80§
 EsteemMd; range‡5.00; 2–85.00; 2.0–8.05.00; 2.0–8.0<0.01§
 Job securityMd; range‡6.00; 2–87.00; 3–86.0; 2.0–8.00.11§
ERI-ratioMd; range‡620.91; 0.3–2.30.82; 0.3–1.80.96; 0.3–2.3<0.01§
ERI-risk groupERI >1.0176 (29.5)55 (22.0)122 (35.2)<0.01*
Overcommitment
(OC)
Md; range‡3716.50; 7.0–24.016.00; 7.0–24.017.00;7.0–24.00.01§
OC >higher value208 (34.8)84 (33.6)124 (35.7)0.96*
  • *P value χ2 test.

  • †Extracurricular activities: the sum of time in extracurricular activities including preparing school lessons, preparing teaching material, preparation of extraprogramme activities, interviews with parents or pupils, planning and teamwork, administrative duties, participation in courses and correcting class tests.

  • ‡Md, median; range, minimum and maximum value.

  • §P value Mann-Whitney U test.

  • ERI, effort–reward imbalance.