Table 2

Association of dog ownership with initiation of medication for hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes

CohortMedicationN treatedTime at riskModel 1* Model 2 Model 3
NationalHypertension503 30510 659 258 1.02 (1.01 to 1.03) 1.02 (1.01 to 1.03) NA
Dyslipidaemia276 69111 508 349 1.03 (1.02 to 1.04) 1.02 (1.01 to 1.04) NA
Diabetes60 03812 207 964 0.91 (0.89 to 0.94) 0.98 (0.95 to 1.01)NA
TwinGeneHypertension2223NA0.96 (0.75 to 1.21)0.94 (0.74 to 1.20)0.90 (0.70 to 1.15)
Dyslipidaemia963NA0.92 (0.65 to 1.29)0.92 (0.65 to 1.29)0.87 (0.62 to 1.22)
Diabetes318NA0.89 (0.49 to 1.61)0.90 (0.50 to 1.63)0.78 (0.43 to 1.43)
  • For national cohort (n=202 6865), Cox regression models with HRs and 95% CI for incident medication are applied, while logistic models for prevalent use is used in TwinGene (n=10 110) and ORs presented.

  • Estimates in bold represents associations with p<0.05.

  • *Model 1. Age and sex adjusted.

  • †Model 2. National cohort: Adjusted for sex, age, type of family, area of residence, population density, marital status, region of birth (Sweden, Nordic, non-Nordic), income, education level, latitude of residence. TwinGene: adjusted for sex, age, type of family, area of residence, population density, marital status, education level and latitude of residence.

  • ‡Model 3. Adjusted for sex, age, number of children in the home, area of residence, population density, marital status, tobacco use, occupational level, employment status, disability and Charlson comorbidity index.

  • NA, not applicable.