Table 1

Demographics, medical background and antibiotic use of study participants

CharacteristicN (%)
Total n=693
Age (median, IQR)53.0 (38.0–66.0)
Females393 (56.7)
Race
 Chinese513 (74.0)
 Malay78 (11.3)
 Indian83 (12.0)
 Other ethnicities19 (2.7)
Education level
 Graduate88 (12.7)
 Diploma251 (36.2)
 Secondary195 (28.1)
 Primary122 (17.6)
 No formal education37 (5.3)
Housing type
 One-room, two-room or three-room public housing334 (48.2)
 Four-room or five-room public housing327 (47.2)
 Private landed property32 (4.6)
Number of occupants in the household
 Overall (median, IQR)3 (2–4)
 ≤3 persons369 (53.2)
 4–5 persons257 (37.1)
 ≥6 persons67 (9.7)
Comorbidities
 Any chronic illnesses239 (34.5)
 Hypertension105 (15.2)
 Hyperlipidemia76 (11.0)
 Diabetes mellitus67 (9.7)
Recent hospitalisation in the past  1  year102 (14.7)
 Antibiotic consumption
 Within past 6 months175 (25.3)
 >6 months ago441 (63.6)
 Never taken antibiotics77 (11.1)