Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyDesignLocation, fundingPrior treatmentsInterventionNTypeMedian age yearsMale %ECOG 0/1%Treatment duration (follow-up) months
AXIS20 PIII OL RCT175 sites in 22 countries,
Pfizer
One prior systemic treatment (sunitinib, cytokine or other), prior sunitinib subgroup 54%Axitinib361CC6173998.2 (NR)
Sorafenib36261711005.2 (NR)
CheckMate 02514 PIII OL RCT146 sites in 24 countries,
BMS
One or two prior targeted treatments (TKI or other, no mTORi)Nivolumab410CC6277NR5.5 (NR)
Everolimus41162743.7 (NR)
HOPE 20515 PII OL RCT37 sites in Czech Republic, Poland, Spain, UK, US,
Eisai
one prior TKI, no prior mTORiLenvatinib+eve51CC61691007.6 (NR)
Everolimus5059761004.1 (NR)
METEOR13 PIII OL RCT173 sites in 26 countries,
Exelixis
one or more prior TKIs; no prior mTORiCabozantinib330CC63*771008.3 (18.7)
Everolimus32862*731004.4 (18.8)
RECORD-128 PIII DB RCT,
Novartis
86 sites in Australia, Canada Europe, Japan, US,
Novartis
one or two prior TKIs; no prior mTORiEverolimus277CC61*78NR4.6 (NR)
BSC/placebo13960*761.9 (NR)
Guida 201732 Chart reviewOne site in France,
NR
One prior targeted treatment (TKI or other)Everolimus8192% CC576985NR (33)
Axitinib45547882NR (26)
Heng 201619 Chart reviewUK, Germany, France, Netherlands,
Novartis
One prior TKI (sunitinib or pazopanib)Everolimus115NR60.266.791.8%≤2NR (NR)
Axitinib96NR (NR)
Sorafenib98NR (NR)
Iacovelli 201527 Chart review23 sites in Italy,
NR
Two prior targeted treatments (TKI or other)Sorafenib90CC637481NR (NR)
Everolimus143NR (NR)
Lakomy 201733 Chart reviewCzech national registry,
one prior targeted treatment (TKI or other)Everolimus52094% CC6575956.1 (NR)
Sorafenib2406275907.1 (NR)
SPAZO-231 Chart review50 sites in Spain,
Novartis
one prior TKI (pazopanib)Everolimus10188% CC6664NRNR (28)
Axitinib886368
Vogelzang 201629 Chart reviewUS,
Novartis
One prior TKI; no prior cytokinesEverolimus32585% CC61*7080NR (15*)
Axitinib12760*6584NR (13*)
Wong 201430 Chart reviewUS,
Novartis
One prior TKI; no prior mTORi, cytokines, bevacizumabEverolimus23391% CC6470NRNR (12.9)
Sorafenib1236672NR (12.1)
  • *Mean values where median was not reported.

  • †Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, Central European Institute of Technology, The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. RENIS registry part funded by Pfizer, Bayer and Novartis.

  • amRCC, advanced or metastatic RCC; BSC, best supportive care; cc, clear cell variant; mRCC, metastatic renal cell carcinoma; mTORi, mammalian target of rapamaycin inhibitor; ncc, non-clear cell variant; NR, not reported; RCT, randomised controlled trials; TKI, tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

  • Notes: ECOG percentages that do not total 100 are due to missing data.