Table 1

Meta-analyses of individual cognitive domains across studies

DomainStudiesSE95 CI Lower95 CI HigherI2
Controlled studies
 Executive function k=30.14−0.270.560.00
 Processing speed k=30.34−0.050.720.00
 Attention k=30.980.241.7240.3
 Memory k=20.27−0.140.670.00
 IQ k=20.30−0.591.1952.6
One-group pre–post studies
 Memory k=70.400.130.670.00
 Attention k=50.520.021.010.00
 Executive function k=50.12−0.120.350.00
 Global cognition k=40.900.381.4119.5
 Instruments and activities of daily living k=40.26−0.310.820.00
 Processing speed k=30.57−0.071.2171.0
 IQ k=30.49−0.271.2539.4
 Subjective memory k=2−0.21−0.840.4361.3
 Perceptual reasoning k=20.59−0.171.3567.3
 Quality of life k=20.61−0.331.550.00