Table 3

One-year associations between weight loss (%) and changes in liver-related and diabetes-related variables

VariablesCCI cohort, n=262
P value
Liver-related parameters
 Δ ALT (U/L)*−3.99±2.83−7.30±2.32−12.52±2.410.01
 Δ Platelet (×109)*−20.36±5.32−25.33±4.38−23.5±3.240.656
 Δ ALP (U/L)*−4.36±2.18−9.70±1.93−11.45±1.45†0.007
Metabolic-related parameters
 Δ HbA1c (%)*−0.92±0.21−1.25±0.16−1.58±0.13†0.002
 Δ Triglycerides (mg/dL)*−6.25±39.3−34.63±25.8−63.8±13.9†0.007
 Δ Cholesterol (mg/dL)*1.34±7.22- 0.17±5.7810.07±3.830.134
 Δ HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)*−0.84±1.86.17±1.51‡10.41±1.07†4.6×10–8
 Δ LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)*3.42±8.140.53±5.1512.41±3.790.183
Kidney function parameters
 Δ Creatinine (mg/dL)*−0.023±0.022−0.008±0.019−0.065±0.0170.039
Non-invasive biomarkers
 Δ NAFLD-LFS*−0.197±0.86−1.291±0.65−2.805±0.44†2.5×10–7
 >−0.640§, n (%)46 (85%)56 (86%)95 (66%)0.001
 Δ NAFLD fibrosis score*0.055±0.13−0.351±0.10−1.014±0.08†2.6×10–15
 <−1.455§, n (%)14 (26%)14 (22%)59 (41%)0.007
Other parameters
 Δ CRP (mg/dL)*−0.506±1.66−2.831±1.0−3.970±1.420.012
 Δ BHB (mmol/L)*0.017±0.060.061±0.030.203±0.03†3.8×10–4
  • Intention-to-treat analysis.

  • The sign means± SEs. P values represent difference between groups. Δ means change from baseline.

  • *Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) while controlling by BMI and baseline values for each analysed covariate.

  • †Significant difference (p<0.001) between WL >10% as compared with WL 5%–10% and <5%.

  • ‡Significant difference (p<0.001) between WL >10% and WL 5%–10% as compared with WL <5%.

  • §For categorical variables, p value for the Mantel-Haenszel χ2 test for trend  and for continuous variables.

  • All ANCOVA analyses were adjusted by Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons (p <0.0025).

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; BHB, beta-hydroxybutyrate; BMI, body mass index; CCI, continuous care intervention; CRP, C reactive protein; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LFS, liver fat score; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; WL, weight loss.