Table 2

Presentation of the methods used for each element of the other intervention development frameworks

Study referenceMethods used in IDF element (a)Methods used in IDF element (b)Methods used in IDF element (c)Methods used in IDF element (d)Methods used in IDF element (e)Methods used in IDF element (f)
Intervention mapping
Beaudet et al 16 Assessing needs and preferences
  1. Interviews (patients)

Developing intervention
  1. Theory and model selection

  2. Intervention proposal validation (patients and stakeholders)

FormalisingTesting and evaluating
  1. Pilot testing (intervention)

van Stralen et al 44 A needs assessment of the study population and the definition of programme objectives
  1. Literature search

  2. Focus group interviews (patients)

  3. Interviews (stakeholders)

Defining the performance objectives, specifying what changes are needed
  1. Literature review

  2. Delphi study (experts)

  3. Theoretical models review

Selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical strategies to change health behaviour and its determinants
  1. Literature search

  2. Search of existing interventions

  3. Focus group interviews (patients)

Developing an intervention programme in which all strategies are integrated, as well as selecting, testing and producing intervention materials
  1. Brainstorming sessions (experts and patients)

Developing a programme adoption and implementation plan
  1. Pilot study (implementation and recruitment)

Anticipating a process and effect evaluation of the programme
  1. Process and effect evaluation

Walters et al 45 Needs assessment
  1. Literature search

  2. Survey

  3. Project management group consultations

  4. Interviews (experts)

Programme objectives
  1. Survey

  2. Literature search

  3. Project management group consultations

  4. Interviews (experts and workers)

Theory-based methods and practical applications
  1. Literature search

  2. Project management group consultations

  3. Interviews (experts and workers)

Programme plan
  1. Project management group consultations

  2. Interviews (experts and workers)

  3. Pilot study (training)

Programme implementation
  1. Literature search

  2. Consultation with stakeholders

  3. Idea collection (workers and instructors)

Evaluation plan
  1. Evaluation (questionnaire and discussion of workers and training)

Conceptual modelling
Kingstone et al 31 PPIE involvementDevelopment of conceptual model
  1. Interviews (patients and clinicians

Agreement of conceptual model
  1. Consensus process (researchers)

Intervention/programme theory
Blamey et al 17
  1. Logic model of intervention theory

Van Meijel model
Van Hecke et al 43 Collection of building blocks needed for the design of the intervention
  1. Literature review

  2. Interviews (problem and needs analysis)

  3. Focus groups (clinicians)

Intervention design
  1. Expert commentary

Validation of the nursing intervention
  1. Qualitative study (patients)

  2. Evaluation

  • IDF,¬†Intervention Development Framework; PPIE, Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement.