Table 1

Patient characteristics

All (n=47)UWS (n=20)MCS (n=27)P value
Demographic characteristics
 Age, years49 (32–62)50 (35–65)47 (30–59)0.38
 Sex ratio (F/M)0.510.330.690.42
 Aetiology0.02
  Anoxia25 (53)169
  TBI8 (17)26
  Stroke6 (13)06
  Other8 (17)26
 Time from ABI, days134 (40–762)57 (27–185)374 (70–916)<0.01
 Mechanically ventilated20 (43)10 (50)8 (30)0.26
Neurological evaluation
 Nb of CRS-R/patient3 (2–4)3 (2–3)3 (2–4)0.10
 Best CRS-R score8 (5–11)5 (4–6)11 (9–13)<0.001
 FOUR-score13 (10–13)11 (10–11)13 (13–13)<0.0001
DoC-feeling assessment
 Nb of raters, (nurses/NAs)83 (57/26)59 (40/19)67 (42/25)0.13
 Nb of ratings, (nurses/NAs)692 (489/203)289 (213/76)403 (276/127)0.16
 Nb of ratings per rater4 (1–12)3 (2–7)2 (1–6)0.40
 Nb of ratings per patient12 (9–19)13 (9–20)12 (9–19)1.00
 Nb of raters per patient7 (5–10)6 [5–10]7 (6–10)0.86
 Time between first and last assessment, days6 (5–9)7 (5–9)6 (5–8)0.27
Brain imagery assessment
 EEG/ERPs44 (94)19 (95)25 (93)0.13
 MRI40 (85)/24 (51)18 (90)/11 (55)22 (81)/13 (48)1.00
 PET scan*28 (60)9 (45)19 (70)0.39
  • Results are expressed in n(%) or median(IQR) as appropriate.

  • *PET scan was performed only in patients free of mechanical ventilation.

  • ABI, acute brain injury; CRS-R, coma recovery scale-revised; DoC, disorders of consciousness; EEG/ERPs, electroencephalogram/event related potentials; FOUR, full outline of unresponsiveness; MCS, minimally conscious state;MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NAs, nursing assistants; Nb, number; PET, positron emission tomography; TBI, traumatic brain injury; UWS, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome.