Table 3

Overview of data collection activities at each HWISE study site

World Bank regionSiteModule 
Implementing partnersMonth(s) and year of data collectionSample sizeFemale respondents, %Season of data collectionLanguage(s) of data collectionSampling strategyData collection method (software)Details of larger study; supplementary data collectedIRB of recordCognitive interviewing (Y/N)
AfricaAccra, Ghana1University of Miami, Delaware State University, Ghana Water Company and Northwestern University.June 201722978.2Rainy season.English.Simple random.Tablet (ODK).Standalone.University of Miami; Delaware University, reliant on Northwestern University and Ghana Water Company.Yes
Lagos, Nigeria1College of Medicine at the University of Lagos and Northwestern University.June–August 201723973.5Rainy season.English, Yoruba and Pidgin.Multistage random.Paper, entered into database (Enketo).Standalone; adolescent menstrual hygiene.Northwestern University & University of LagosYes
Kahemba, DRC1Oregon Health Sciences University, Michigan State University and Institut National de Recherche Biomedicale.June–September 201739265.6Dry season.Kikongo and Lingala.Cluster randomised control trial.Paper/tablet hybrid (ODK).NCT03157336: toxicodietary and genetic determinants of susceptibility to neurodegeneration.Oregon Health Sciences University & Ministry of Health, DRCNo
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia1Oregon State University, Emory University and Emory Ethiopia.July–August 2017259100Rainy season.Amharic.Stratified random.Tablet (KoboToolbox).NCT03075436: the impact of enhanced, demand-side sanitation and hygiene promotion on sustained behaviour change and health in Ethiopia.Amhara Regional Health Bureau, Emory University; Oregon State University, reliant on Northwestern UniversityNo
Singida, Tanzania1Cornell University and Northwestern University.July–August 20171006*56.7Dry season.Swahili.Purposive, community led.Tablet (ODK).NCT02761876: Singida nutrition and agroecology project.Cornell UniversityNo
Lilongwe, Malawi1Georgia State University.July 201730286.8Neither rainy nor dry season.Chichewa and English.Cluster random.Tablet (ODK).Standalone.Georgia State UniversityNo
Kisumu, Kenya1Pamoja Community Based Organisation and Northwestern University.July 201724781.3Neither rainy nor dry season.Luo, Swahili and English.Simple random.Tablet (ODK).Standalone; moringa.Northwestern University and African Medical Research Foundation.Yes
Arua, Uganda1Michigan State University.August–September 201725085.6Rainy season.Lugbara and English.Cluster random.Paper, entered into database (Enketo).Standalone.Michigan State University, reliant on Northwestern University.No
Kampala, Uganda1T-Group Kampala, University of Amsterdam and Makerere University.August 201724669.1Dry season.Luganda and English.Purposive.Paper, entered into database (Enketo).Standalone.Northwestern University and T-Group Kampala.No
Morogoro, Tanzania2Workman Consulting and Northwestern University.March–May 201830078.3Rainy season.Swahili.Cluster random.Paper, entered into database (Enketo).Standalone; water for sanitation and hygiene.Northwestern University and Sokoine University of Agriculture.No
East Asia and PacificUpolu, Samoa1Yale University.April 2018–present176†63.4†Across multiple seasons.Samoan.Purposive.Tablet (REDCap).NIH R01HL093093: integrated cellular, mouse and human research on a novel missense variant influencing adiposity in Samoans.Yale University.No
Labuan Bajo, Indonesia2University of the West of England.May 201827944.8Dry season.Indonesian.Cluster random.Tablet (ODK).Standalone.Exempt.No
Europe and Central AsiaDushanbe, Tajikistan1Arizona State University and M-Vector.July–August 201722573.3Dry season.Tajik and Russian.Cluster random.Tablet (CSPro).Global Ethnohydrology Study—ASU.Arizona State University.Yes
Latin America and the CaribbeanCeará, Brazil1Texas A&M University.March 2017–February 201825470.2Neither rainy nor dry season.Portuguese.Cluster random.Paper, entered into database (Enketo).NSF1560962: urban water provisioning systems and household water security.Texas A&M University.No
Mérida, Mexico1Michigan State University.July–August 201725063.4Dry season.Spanish.Cluster random.Paper, entered into database (Enketo).Standalone.Michigan State University and Northwestern University.No
Honda, Colombia1Pontificia Universidad Javeriana and Northwestern University.August 201719663.6Rainy season.Spanish.Cluster random.Tablet (ODK).Standalone.Northwestern University and Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.No
Acatenango, Guatemala1Arizona State University.September–October 201710193.0Dry season.Spanish.Cluster random.Paper, entered into database (Excel).Global Ethnohydrology Study—ASU.Arizona State University.No
San Borja, Bolivia2Pennsylvania State University.November–December 201724758.6Dry season.Spanish.Simple random.Paper, entered into database (Excel).Standalone.Northwestern University.No
Chiquimula, Guatemala2McGill University and Action Against Hunger-Guatemala.January–February 201831486.6Middle/end of dry season.Spanish.Systematic random.Tablet (ODK).Standalone.Action Against Hunger-Guatemala and Northwestern University.No
Gressier, Haiti2University of Florida.February–March 201829298.6Dry season.Creole.Stratified random.Tablet (REDCap).Standalone; perceived water quality and disease.University of Florida.No
Torreón, Mexico2Texas A&M University.April 201824973.1Middle/end of dry season.Spanish.Simple random.Paper, entered into database (Excel).Standalone.Texas A&M University.No
Cartagena, Colombia2University of Miami.July 201826669.2Dry season.Spanish.Simple random.Paper, entered into database (SPSS).Standalone.University of Miami.No
Middle East and North AfricaBeirut, Lebanon2American University of Beirut.December 2017–January 201857363.8Rainy season.Arabic.Cluster random.Tablet (ODK).Standalone.Northwestern University and American University of Beirut.Yes
Sistan and Balochistan, Iran2Shahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesJanuary–February 201830699.0Rainy season.Farsi.Stratified random.Paper, entered into database (SPSS).Standalone; cash transfers and health centre access.Exempt.No
South AsiaKathmandu, Nepal1Arizona State University and Environmental and Public Health Organization.June 201726371.5Rainy season.Nepali.Cluster random.Paper, entered into database (ODK).Global Ethnohydrology Study—ASU.Arizona State University.Yes
Punjab, Pakistan2University of Washington.February–March 201823557.5Dry season.Seraikee and Urdu.Cluster random.Paper, entered into database (Excel).Standalone; sociocultural feeding practices.Exempt.No
Pune, India1Cornell University, Johns Hopkins University, BJ Government Medical College.February–present180†100†Across multiple seasons.Marathi and Hindi.Parallel assignment, non-randomised.Paper, entered into database (Excel).NIH R01HD081929: pregnancy associated changes in TB immunology; NIH K23AI129854: effect of pregnancy and HIV on the development of tuberculosis.Cornell University, Pune IRB, Johns Hopkins University.No
Rajasthan, India2Anode Governance Lab.March 201824827.0Dry season.Hindi.Stratified random.Paper, entered into database (Excel).Standalone.Exempt.No
  • *Data were collected for both men and women living in the same household; therefore, for scale analysis, a random individual was selected from each pair (n=564).

  • †Data collection ongoing, values based on data available as of August 2018.

  • DRC, Democratic Republic of the Congo; HWISE, Household Water Insecurity Experiences; n.d., no data; ODK, Open Data Kit.