Table 2

Nature of association between dairy consumption and risk of cancer reported in included pooled  analyses / meta-  analyses and systematic reviews

Type of dairyType of Cancer
CRPROVBRGSEPNHLLungEMBLPNTDRenal cellMM
All dairy products++
++
+
−∅
+
+
Whole milk+
+
+
Milk+++
+
+
+
Fermented milk
Non-fermented milk
Low-fat milk+
Skim milk
Yogurt
Cheese++
+
Hard cheese
Cottage cheese
Butter+
Solid cheese
Dairy calcium+
Ice cream+
Fermented dairy
Low-fat dairy
High-fat dairy
Lactose
+
  • ∅, no association; −, decreased risk of cancer (p<0.05); +, increased risk of cancer (p<0.05); BL, bladder; BR, breast; CR, colorectal cancer; EM, endometrial; EP, oesophageal; GS, gastric; MM, multiple myeloma; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; OV, ovary; PN, pancreas; PR, prostate; TD, thyroid.