Table 3

Nature of association between dairy consumption and risk of cancer: evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analysis

Type of dairyType of cancer
CRPROVBRGSEPLungNHLEMBLPNTDRenal cellMM
All-dairy products+
Whole milk
Milk+
Fermented milk
Non-fermented milk
Low-fat milk+
Skim milk
Yogurt
Cheese+
Cottage cheese
Butter
Solid cheese
Dairy calcium+
Ice cream
Fermented dairy
Low-fat dairy
High-fat dairy
  • ∅, no association; −, decreased risk of cancer (p<0.05); +, increased risk of cancer (p<0.05); BL, bladder; BR, breast; CR, colorectal cancer; EM, endometrial; EP, oesophageal; GS, gastric; MM, multiple myeloma; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; OV, ovary; PN, pancreas; PR, prostate; TD, thyroid.