Table 2

Results of GEE analysis, including variables associated with distance

VariablesTravel distanceBypass distance
Exp (β)P value95% CIExp (β)P value95% CI
Bypass9.63<0.001(8.71 to 10.64)
Age group (year)
 45–651.260.006(1.07 to 1.49)1.710.032(1.05 to 2.79)
 >651.370.003(1.11 to 1.69)2.080.021(1.11 to 3.87)
Sex
 Women1.090.352(0.91 to 1.31)1.540.133(0.88 to 2.72)
Education
 <Elementary school1.040.659(0.86 to 1.26)0.500.022(0.28 to 0.91)
 >College1.270.009(1.06 to 1.52)1.880.027(1.07 to 3.28)
Trisection of equivalent income
 T20.950.344(0.86 to 1.05)0.47<0.001(0.36 to 0.62)
 T30.990.916(0.88 to 1.12)0.42<0.001(0.31 to 0.59)
Geographical region
 Small cities1.250.003(1.08 to 1.45)0.40<0.001(0.26 to 0.63)
 Rural county1.98<0.001(1.55 to 2.54)0.630.233(0.29 to 1.35)
Type of dental treatment
 Implants/orthodontics1.170.002(1.06 to 1.28)1.530.001(1.20 to 1.95)
 Prostheses1.070.076(0.99 to 1.15)0.970.754(0.81 to 1.17)
Temporal trend
 Year 20091.000.988(0.92 to 1.08)2.06<0.001(1.69 to 2.51)
 Year 20101.22<0.001(1.12 to 1.32)2.29<0.001(1.86 to 2.83)
 Year 20111.19<0.001(1.09 to 1.29)1.420.001(1.15 to 1.77)
  • The dependent variable was log-transformed.

  • Exp (β), exponentiation of coefficient; β, coefficient of generalised estimating equation regression.

  • GEE, generalised estimating equation.