Table 2

Characteristics of HWISE sites for scale development by region

World Bank regionSite (Module Version)Primary sources of drinking water, %Köppen climate classification at site (Köppen code)*GNI per capita (USD)†National income classification‡Urbanicity of site
AfricaAccra, Ghana (1)Bagged/sachet water, 86.0.
Borehole/tubewell, 5.7.
Other, 8.3.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).1380Lower middle income.Urban
Lagos, Nigeria (1)Bagged/sachet water, 48.9.
Borehole/tubewell, 34.7.
Other, 16.4.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).2450Lower middle income.Urban
Kahemba, DRC (1)Surface water, 99.7.
Other, 0.3.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).420Low income.Rural
Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (1)Unprotected dug well, 25.1. Rainwater collection, 20.9.
Standpipe, 13.5.
Surface water, 13.5.
Protected dug well, 12.4.
Unprotected spring, 10.0.
Other, 4.6.
Warm temperature, winter dry, warm summer (Cwb).660Low income.Rural
Singida, Tanzania (1)Standpipe, 48.6.
Unprotected dug well, 17.4.
Borehole/tubewell, 12.9.
Other, 12.8.
Unprotected spring, 8.3.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).900Low income.Rural
Lilongwe, Malawi (1)Standpipe, 45.4.
Piped water, 42.1.
Other, 12.5.
Warm temperature, winter dry, hot summer (Cwa).320Low income.Periurban
Arua, Uganda (1)Protected dug well, 64.8.
Unprotected spring, 19.6.
Other, 15.6.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).660Low income.Rural
Kisumu, Kenya (1)Surface water, 17.4.
Borehole/tubewell, 16.2.
Rainwater, 13.8.
Piped water, 11.3.
Standpipe, 10.9.
Protected dug well, 10.1.
Unprotected dug well, 7.7.
Unprotected spring, 6.1.
Other, 6.5.
Equatorial, fully humid (Af).1380Lower middle income.Rural
Kampala, Uganda (1)Standpipe, 68.3.
Other, 21.1.
Unprotected dug well, 10.6.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).660Low income.Urban
Morogoro, Tanzania (2)Standpipe, 70.7.
Other, 29.3.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).900Low income.Urban and periurban
East Asia and PacificUpolu, Samoa (1)Piped water, 81.4.
Standpipe, 12.5.
Other, 6.1.
n.d.4100Upper middle income.Urban and periurban
Labuan Bajo, Indonesia (2)Bagged/sachet water, 36.9 .Protected spring, 12.9.
Piped water, 10.0.
Tanker truck, 9.7.
Standpipe, 9.3.
Protected dug well, 6.5.
Borehole/tubewell, 5.7.
Other, 9.0.
Equatorial, fully humid (Af).3400Lower middle income.Urban
Europe and Central AsiaDushanbe, Tajikistan (1)Piped water, 58.2.
Standpipe, 24.0.
Tanker truck, 9.3.
Other, 8.5.
Warm temperature, summer dry, warm summer (Csb).1110Lower middle income.Urban
Latin America and the CaribbeanCeará, Brazil (1)Piped water, 59.5.
Protected dug well, 33.9.
Bottled water, 5.5.
Other, 1.1.
Equatorial, summer dry (As).8840Upper middle income.Urban
Mérida, Mexico (1)Bagged/sachet water, 50.0.
Other, 33.6.
Piped water, 14.4.
Other, 2.0.
Arid steppe, hot arid (BSh).9040Upper middle income.Urban
Acatenango, Guatemala (1)Piped water, 38.4.
Standpipe, 31.3.
Tanker truck, 16.2.
Other, 14.1.
Warm temperature, winter dry, warm summer (Cwb).3790Lower middle income.Periurban
Honda, Colombia (1)Piped water, 74.5.
Standpipe, 20.4.
Other, 5.1.
Equatorial, fully humid (Af).6320Upper middle income.Periurban
Torreón, Mexico (2)Bottled water, 70.2.
Piped water, 27.0.
Other, 2.8.
Arid steppe, hot arid (BSh).9040Upper middle income.Urban
San Borja, Bolivia (2)Standpipe, 41.6.
Tanker truck, 19.3.
Other, 10.1.
Borehole/tubewell, 8.0.
Piped water, 7.6.
Rainwater collection, 6.7.
Bottled water, 6.7.
Equatorial, monsoonal (Am).3070Lower middle income.Rural
Chiquimula, Guatemala (2)Piped water, 65.0.
Unprotected spring, 15.3.
Standpipe, 12.7.
Other, 7.0.
Equatorial, monsoonal (Am).3790Lower middle income.Rural
Gressier, Haiti (2)Standpipe, 26.8.
Small water vendor, 14.1.
Bagged/sachet water, 13.1.
Other, 10.9.
Bottled water, 10.7.
Borehole/tubewell, 9.3.
Protected dug well, 7.9.
Tanker truck, 7.2.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).780Low income.Periurban
Cartagena, Colombia (2)Piped water, 46.2.
Standpipe, 34.6.
Other, 12.4.
Small water vendor, 6.8.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).6320Upper middle income.Urban
Middle East and North AfricaBeirut, Lebanon (2)Small water vendor, 54.5.
Bottled water, 39.7.
Other, 5.8.
Warm temperature, summer dry, hot summer (Csa).7680Upper middle income.Urban
Sistan and Balochistan, Iran (2)Small water vendor, 48.0.
Other, 30.1.
Piped water, 21.9.
Arid, desert, hot arid (BWh)5470Upper middle income.Urban,periurban and rural
South AsiaKathmandu, Nepal (1)Bottled water, 49.8.
Piped water, 31.2.
Tanker truck, 10.7.
Other, 8.3.
Warm temperature, winter dry, hot summer (Cwa).730Low income.Urban
Pune, India (1)Piped water, 89.4.
Other, 10.6.
Equatorial, winter dry (Aw).1680Lower middle income.Urban
Punjab, Pakistan (2)Standpipe, 26.6.
Borehole/tubewell, 23.2.
Piped water, 15.9.
Rainwater collection, 14.2.
Small water vendor, 10.3.
Arid, desert, hot arid (BWh).1510Lower middle income.Rural and periurban
Rajasthan, India (2)Tanker truck, 55.2.
Borehole/tubewell, 26.2.
Other, 13.4.
Piped water, 5.2.
Arid steppe, hot arid (BSh).1680Lower middle income.Urban
  • *Köppen climate classification predicted using Scenario A1F1 for 2001–2025, projected to 31 December 2020 used for reference point (ESRI, ArcGIS).

  • †Gross National Income in USD from World Bank classification, data from 2017.

  • ‡Income Classification from World Bank, data from 2017.

  • DRC, Democratic Republic of the Congo; n.d., no data.