Table 1

Participant characteristics

Variablen (%)
Gender
 Male587 (50.5)
 Female575 (49.5)
Age, years
 18–29297 (25.5)
 30–49460 (39.5)
 ≥50408 (35.0)
Education
 Junior high school289 (25.2)
 High school/technical secondary school339 (29.5)
 Junior college210 (18.3)
 University and above310 (27.0)
Personal monthly income (¥)
 <2000203 (17.5)
 2000–4999504 (43.4)
 5000–9999329 (28.3)
 >10 000125 (10.8)
Marital status
 Married891 (76.5)
 Unmarried/divorced/widowed274 (23.5)
Area of residence
 Within the inner ring284 (24.4)
 Between the inner and middle rings265 (22.7)
 Between the middle and outer rings316 (27.1)
 Beyond the outer ring300 (25.8)
Ownership of bicycle
 Yes879 (75.5)
 No286 (24.5)
Ownership of motor vehicle
 Yes550 (47.2)
 No615 (52.8)
Distance from work/college/university
 <1.5 km282 (25.0)
 1.5–5 km432 (38.2)
 >5 km319 (28.2)
 Staying at home/not working97 (8.6)
Commuting time (one way)
 <15 min359 (31.8)
 15–30 min416 (36.8)
 >30 min257 (22.8)
 Staying at home/not working97 (8.6)