Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of the sample, by treatment condition

BIP TIC ERP (n=12)BIP TIC HRT (n=11)
Age, mean (SD); min–max11.80 (2.51);
8–15
12.79 (2.62);
8–16
Males, n (%)8 (67)7 (64)
Tic disorder, n (%)
 TD12 (100)10 (91)
 PTD0 (0)1 (9)
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Anxiety disorder2 (17)4 (36)
 Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder5 (42)4 (36)
 Depression0 (0)1 (9)
 Obsessive-compulsive disorder2 (17)1 (9)
Previous contact with child/adolescent mental health services
 Yes, n (%)12 (100)10 (91)
Previous psychological treatment for TD/PTD, n (%)
 None11 (92)8 (73)
 Behaviour therapy1 (8)2 (18)
 Other0 (0)1 (9)
Baseline medication status
 None11 (92)8 (73)
 Antipsychotic0 (0)2 (18)
 Stimulant0 (0)1 (9)
 SSRI0 (0)1 (9)
 Melatonin1 (8)0 (0)
Distance from home to clinic, km, mean (median); min–max51 (23.5);
7–212
84 (37.6);
5–416
Education, main parent involved in treatment, n (%)
 Primary school0 (0)1 (9)
 Secondary school1 (8)3 (27)
 College/university9 (75)6 (55)
 Doctoral degree2 (17)1 (9)
  • BIP TIC ERP, internet-delivered exposure and response prevention; BIP TIC HRT, internet-delivered habit reversal training; PTD, persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; TD, Tourette’s disorder.