Table 2

The YGTSS for the BIP TIC ERP and BIP TIC HRT groups at all measure points

YGTSSBIP TIC ERP (n=12)BIP TIC HRT (n=11)
Mean (SD)*Within-group difference†Within-group effect size‡Mean (SD)*Within-group difference†Within-group effect size‡
Coefficient (95% CI); p valueCohen’s d (95% CI)Coefficient (95% CI); p valueCohen’s d (95% CI)
Total Tic Severity Score
 Baseline23.75 (5.26)23.45 (6.88)
 Post-treatment19.00 (7.48)−4.75 (−8.18 to −1.32); p=0.007¶0.73 (-0.10 to 1.56)21.18 (6.19)−2.27 (−5.65 to 1.11); p=0.1870.35 (−0.50 to 1.19)
 3-month follow-up§18.25 (4.54)−5.50 (−8.93 to −2.07); p=0.002¶1.12 (0.24 to 1.97)20.18 (6.21)−3.27 (−6.65 to 0.11); p=0.0580.50 (−0.36 to 1.34)
 6-month follow-up15.00 (7.01)−3.25 (−6.37 to −0.13); p=0.041¶0.55 (−0.27 to 1.36)19.45 (7.47)−0.73 (−3.71 to 2.26); p=0.6330.11 (−0.73 to 0.94)
 12-month follow-up16.92 (5.55)−1.33 (−4.46 to 1.79); p=0.4030.26 (−0.54 to 1.06)19.36 (8.48)−0.82 (−3.80 to 2.17); p=0.5910.11 (−0.73 to 0.95)
Motor Tic Severity
 Baseline14.42 (1.73)15.27 (1.85)
 Post-treatment11.42 (4.17)−3.00 (−4.85 to −1.15); p=0.001¶0.94 (0.08 to 1.78)13.18 (2.27)−2.09 (−3.65 to −0.53); p=0.009¶1.01 (0.11 to 1.89)
 3-month follow-up§12.33 (1.97)−2.08 (−3.93 to −0.24); p=0.027¶1.12 (0.25 to 1.98)12.55 (2.70)−2.73 (−4.29 to −1.17); p=0.001¶1.18 (0.26 to 2.08)
 6-month follow-up9.67 (5.05)−2.67 (−4.69 to −0.64); p=0.010¶0.70 (−0.14 to 1.51)12.55 (2.58)0.00 (−1.25 to 1.25); p=1.0000.00 (−0.84 to 0.84)
 12-month follow-up10.58 (1.73)−1.75 (−3.77 to 0.27): p=0.0900.94 (0.09 to 1.78)12.36 (3.17)−0.18 (−1.43 to 1.07); p=0.7750.06 (−0.77 to 0.90)
Vocal Tic Severity
 Baseline9.33 (4.98)8.18 (6.19)
 Post-treatment7.58 (4.01)−1.75 (−4.17 to 0.67); p=0.1560.39 (−0.43 to 1.19)8.00 (5.37)−0.18 (−2.71 to 2.34); p=0.8880.03 (−0.80 to 0.87)
 3-month follow-up§5.92 (4.72)−3.42 (−5.84 to −1.00; p=0.006¶0.70 (−0.13 to 1.52)7.64 (4.76)−0.55 (−3.07 to 1.98); p=0.6720.10 (−0.74 to 0.93)
 6-month follow-up5.33 (4.68)−0.58 (−2.57 to 1.40); p=0.5640.12 (−0.68 to 0.92)6.91 (5.68)−0.73 (−2.85 to 1.40); p=0.5030.14 (−0.70 to 0.97)
 12-month follow-up6.33 (5.42)0.42 (−1.57 to 2.40); p=0.680−0.08 (−0.88 to 0.72)7.00 (6.08)−0.64 (−2.76 to 1.49); p=0.5580.12 (−0.72 to 0.95)
Impairment
 Baseline16.67 (6.51)17.27 (7.86)
 Post-treatment6.67 (7.78)−10.00 (−13.83 to −6.17); p<0.001¶1.39 (0.48 to 2.28)10.00 (7.75)−7.27 (−12.18 to −2.37); p=0.004¶0.93 (0.04 to 1.81)
 3-month follow-up§4.17 (5.15)−12.50 (−16.33 to −8.67); p<0.001¶2.13 (1.10 to 3.13)8.18 (9.82)−9.09 (−14.00 to −4.19); p<0.001¶1.02 (0.12 to 1.90)
 6-month follow-up1.67 (3.89)−2.50 (−5.25 to 0.25); p=0.0750.55 (−0.27 to 1.36)7.27 (9.05)−0.91 (−3.39 to 1.57); p=0.4730.10 (−0.74 to 0.93)
 12-month follow-up1.67 (3.89)−2.50 (−5.25 to 0.25); p=0.0750.55 (−0.27 to 1.36)7.27 (10.09)−0.91 (−3.39 to 1.57); p=0.4730.09 (−0.75 to 0.93)
  • *Observed means.

  • †Coefficients at post-treatment and at the 3-month follow-up compare with baseline, while coefficients at the 6-month and 12-month follow-ups compare with the 3-month follow-up.

  • ‡All Cohen’s d effect sizes are calculated from observed data. Post-treatment and the 3-month follow-up effect sizes compare to baseline, while the 6-month and 12-month follow-up effect sizes compare to the 3-month follow-up. Effect sizes of 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 are considered small, moderate and large, respectively.

  • §Primary endpoint.

  • ¶Significant at an alpha level of 0.05.