Table 1

Comparison of author and study characteristics by gender, stratified by the year of publication

Variables20002015Change in gender differences over time
(P  value *)
Women
(n=243, 31.5%)
Men
(n=528)
P valueWomen
(n = 469, 41.2 %)
Men
(n=670)
P value
Education, n (%)<0.001<0.0010.17
 MD92 (37.9)343 (65.0)120 (25.6)291 (43.4)
 MD and PhD12 (4.9)56 (10.6)18 (3.8)88 (13.1)
 MD and Master26 (10.7)35 (6.6)66 (14.1)109 (16.3)
 PhD40 (16.5)59 (11.2)135 (28.8)113 (16.9)
 Master30 (12.3)24 (4.6)85 (18.1)50 (7.5)
 Other degree or no degree43 (17.7)11 (2.1)45 (9.6)19 (2.8)
Home institution, n (%)0.370.230.66
 University66 (27.2)110 (20.8)151 (32.2)192 (28.7)
 Medical school or hospital132 (54.3)334 (63.3)221 (47.1)372 (55.5)
 Public agency20 (8.2)31 (5.9)48 (10.2)55 (8.2)
 Industry11 (4.5)29 (5.5)20 (4.3)21 (3.1)
 Foundation or other non-profit8 (3.3)10 (1.9)21 (4.5)19 (2.8)
 Contract research organisation or similar5 (2.1)10 (1.9)6 (1.3)5 (0.8)
 Other1 (0.4)4 (0.8)2 (0.4)6 (0.9)
Country/continent, n (%)0.010.060.52
 USA188 (77.4)347 (65.7)368 (78.5)466 (69.6)
 Canada12 (4.9)23 (4.4)32 (6.8)58 (8.7)
 Europe36 (14.8)99 (18.8)48 (10.2)100 (14.9)
 Other7 (2.9)59 (11.2)21 (4.5)46 (6.9)
  • *P value testing an interaction between each variable listed and the year in the assessment of gender differences.