Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis of the relationship between statin use and herpes zoster

Follow-up or period
Diagnosis of herpes zosterAssessment of statin useTypes of statinsCase/control or exposure/non-exposureOR (95% CI)Confounder adjustmentQuality assessment
Kim et al,
KoreaRetrospective cohort52.61151ICD codePrescriptionAtorvastatin, rosuvastatin, pitavastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin25 726/25 7261.25
(1.15 to 1.37)
Propensity score matching: age, gender, economic class, HPN, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, IHD, TIA, HF, AF, VHD, carotid stenosis, PVD, CRD, CLD, CPD, RA, IBD, malignancy, transplantation recipients of solid organs or HSCT, HIV, depressionSelection: 3
Comparability: 2
Outcome: 2
Matthews et al,
UKCase control59.52000–201160.7ICD codePrescriptionAtorvastatin, rosuvastatin, cerivastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin144 959/549 3361.13
(1.11 to 1.15)
BMI, CVD, HIV, smoking, alcohol, RA, lymphoma, leukaemia, myeloma, HSCT, OIT, SLE, CKD, COPD, oral corticosteroids, OUCID, DM, asthma, depression, cancer.Selection: 3
Comparability: 2
Outcome: 2
Chen et al,
ChinaRetrospective cohort60.14.8250ICD codePrescriptionAtorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin53 069/53 0691.21
(1.13 to 1.29)
Age, sex, CCI score, and comorbidities, HPN, DM, IBD, stroke, cancer, SLE, RA, HIVSelection: 3 Comparability: 2
Outcome: 1
Antoniou et al,
CanadaRetrospective cohort731.9555.2ICD code or receipt of a prescription for either valaciclovir or famciclovir for the treatment of herpes zoster.Medication recordsAtorvastatin, rosuvastatin, cerivastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin494 651/494 6511.13
(1.10 to 1.17)
Age, sex, CCI, CKD, residence, no. of prescription drugs in previous year, medication use, income quintile, MI, angina, HPN, stroke, systemic malignancy, UC, Crohn’s disease, SLE, RA, HIV, CABGSelection: 3
Comparability: 2
Outcome: 1
Chung et al,
ChinaCase control51.72001–201153.3ICD codeMedical ordersAtorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin47 359/142 0771.28
(1.24 to 1.32)
Age, sex, index year, CHF, MI, liver disease, cancer, dementia, monthly income, geographic locationSelection: 2 Comparability: 2
Outcome: 2
Cirillo et al,
USACase control582003–20043.3ICD codePrescriptionAtorvastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin8221/10 7300.98
(0.82 to 1.17)
Sex, race, marital status, local VISN, means test group, chronic disease score, died during follow-up, prevalence of elixhauser conditionsSelection: 2
Comparability: 2
Outcome: 1
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CHF, congestive heart failure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CLD, chronic liver disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CPD, chronic pulmonary disease; CRD, chronic renal disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HF, heart failure; HPN, hypertension; HSCT, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; MI, myocardial infarction; NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale; OIT, other immunosuppressive therapy; OUCID, other unspecified cellular immune deficiencies; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; UC, ulcerative colitis; VHD, valvular heart disease; VISN, Veterans Integrated Service Network.