Table 1

Case study site characteristics

HospitalInpatient bedsAverage full time equivalent doctors*Annual income†Type of location (Office of National Statistics classification)‡
11000+>1001>£500 millionUrban with major conurbation
2601–800<250<£200 millionUrban with city and town
3601–800501–1000£201–500 millionUrban with city and town
41000+>1001>£500 millionUrban with significant rural
5601–800251–500£201–500 millionUrban with major conurbation
6201–400251–500£201–500 millionUrban with major conurbation
  • *Source: NHS Digital, NHS Hospital & Community Health Service (HCHS).35

  • †Publicly available hospital annual reports.

  • ‡Source: Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.36